1.0 Background to the study:
The impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on learning business studies is currently in relation to use of digital media, primarily computers and internet to facilitate teaching and learning. These are the technologies used in conveying, manipulation, and storage of data by electronic means. They provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused and interactive knowledge environments. To meet these challenges, learning institutions must embrace the new technologies and appropriate Information Communication Technology tools for learning. The direct link between Information Communication Technology use and students’ study habit and academic performance has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Some of them help students with their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors (Valasidou and Bousiou, 2005).
According to Leuven, (2004) stated that there is no evidence for a relationship between increased educational use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) and students’ performance.
In fact, they find a consistently negative and marginally significant relationship between Information Communication Technology (ICT) use and some student achievement measures. In support to these, some students may use ICT to increase their leisure time and have less time to study. Online gaming and increased communication channels do not necessarily mean increased achievement. On the other hand, Al-Hawaj, Elali, and Twizell (2008), stated that ICT has the potential to transform the nature of education: where and how learning takes place and the roles of students and teachers in the learning process. Karim and Hassan (2006) noted the exponential growth in digital information, which changes the way students perceive study and reading and in how printed materials are used to facilitate study. The ability to use ICT effectively and appropriately is now seen as essential to allow learners to acquire, exploit information within every sphere of human activity.
Our country is experiencing a new industrial and technological revolution which is bringing about a significant, fast and extensive transformation of society and industry. The result of this revolution is that there is now a rapid increase in the processes of production and the transmission of goods and services produced. The ICT revolution is also encouraging new goods and services, changing the ...
It can be assumed that specific forms of ICT will change with time. However, the need to be able to evaluate and use ICT purposefully will remain the key to full participation in an information society. The school curriculum already reflects the perceived value and importance of developing ICT literacy, and indeed, information literacy in all students. No wonder, the Lagos state government under Tinubu, decided to inculcate the ICT appreciation programs into the various secondary schools teachers. It is no longer strange for teachers to gather relevant information for the effective teaching and learning of business studies. However, research studies of information and communication technology (ICT) in business have shown that ICT facilitates the acquisition of important cognitive skills required for effective business analysis and evaluation. It provides the process of acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, or perception to understand the connection between them, which allows teachers, and student to communicate both their thoughts and interests in the subject matter and offers a better match to students’ learning style.
Moreover, students can observe the real-life implications of business theories through this medium. The proposition of business theory like all scientific theories is obviously deductions from a series of postulates. In addition, the chief of these postulates are all assumptions involving in some way simple and indisputable part of experience, relating to the way in which the scarcity of goods, which is the subject matter of our science, actually shows itself in the world of reality. It should be noted that computer as a tool for ICT has a wide application in education, which can be effectively used in the instructional system by the teacher to review skill already taught, also helps learners to go over the set of instructional procedures repeatedly, likewise helps to implement traditional instruction by reinforcing or expanding skills and knowledge. In addition, teachers’ increasingly use of ICT helps to prepare their work more effectively and achieve time gains.
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1.2 Statement of the problem
Majority of students in secondary schools and tertiary institutions are now getting closer to computers and ICT day by day, but even with that, some had little or no knowledge of computer and internet, which may make it impossible to use Information Communication Technology (ICT) for the teaching of business studies in secondary schools. These problems have become major concern to those concerned in the teaching and learning of business education. It is therefore pertinent to find a fast way of using computers and ICT generally to teach business education in secondary schools with a view of finding lasting solutions to the problems.
1.3Purpose of the study
The general aim is to ascertain the effectiveness of ICT in teaching of business studies in secondary schools. Other objectives are to: 1) Determine the level of availability of Computer facilities to secondary schools in Lagos State 2) Provide students with adequate knowledge and understanding of the tools of business analysis and of the situations and problems to which these tools are applied. 3) Examine the positive influences of using Computers in relation to academic performance of secondary school students in Agege local government. 4) Examine the positive influences of using Computers in relation to academic performance of business education students in Agege local government. 5) Ascertain relationship between the usage of Computer Education and academic performance of secondary school students in Agege local government.
1) What is the level of availability of Computer facilities to secondary schools in Lagos State? 2)Can all business education topics be taught with the use of ICT? 3)To what extent can ICT be used in the teaching of business education in secondary schools? 4)Is there any influence of ICT on the teaching of business education in secondary schools? 5)What is the relationship between ICT and the teaching of business studies as a subject?
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1.5 Research hypotheses
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the use of ICT in the of business studies. Ho2: There is no significant relationship between teachers’ attitudes to ICT and students in business studies. Ho3: There is no significant relationship in teachers’ adoption of ICT in the teaching of business studies and motivation to learning.
1.6 Significance of the study
The research exposes both the teachers and the students of business studies to the use of ICT as a tool in teaching business studies. This will increase motivation, which goes together with a positive learning attitude and leads to more examples and attention during lesson with students being more involved in the learning activities. This also enables the students to understand the term ICT and its uses in the teaching of business studies in secondary schools.
1.7 Scope of the study
This study is focused mainly on the use, reaction (attitude) and performance of students and teachers in Lagos state towards the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching of business studies.
1.8 Definition of terms
•Business Studies- The study of the activities involved in running a business, especially the financial and managerial aspect as well as the teaching of business in junior and senior secondary schools. •Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – It is the processing and distribution of data using computer hardware and software, telecommunications, and digital electronics. •Internet- Computer based global information system, a computer that allows millions of computer users around the world to exchange information. •Data- Information, often in the form of facts or figures obtained from experiments or surveys, used as basis for making calculations or drawing conclusions.
The use of computers in education opens a new area of knowledge and offers a tool that has the potential to change some of the existing educational methods. The teacher is the key to the effective use of this resource in the educational system. As computer use continues to increase in society, educators must also prepare for the use of computers within the classroom McCannon and Crews (2006). In ...
•Computer- Is any electronic device (calculating machine) that solves problems by applying prescribed instructions on data presented to it. It also said to be a machine that is capable accepting information, processing the accepted information, and give the desired output. •Information- The meaningful material derived from computer data by organizing them and interpreting them in a specific way. •Communication skill- Academic performance; refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different task giving to them by their teachers.
It is ideal and pertinent that “any piece of research work should begin with a survey of existing literature in order to find out what is already known about a particular topic” (Adedoyin 1999).
It is in the view of the above statement, therefore, a prior knowledge (no matter) how small about a particular topic or concept will enhance more meaningful contribution.
2.1Application of computer
There are many are many areas of life where computers are being used today to perform feats that would have humanly impossible. We can validly say that there is no area of life that does not have its own share of computer utility. For the purpose of this research, only three aspects of these applications will be mentioned. These are gathered in the work of (Solanke, 1997) as follows: a.Scientific research: In most scientific research, it is often required to determine the values of complex equations, to also determine the behavior of objects under certain conditions and analyze a large number of samples collected from experiments. These functions are in most cases difficult to carry out. The computer has been used in this area as perfect tool for scientific research analysis.
b.Education: Many education materials are being prepared using computer multimedia systems which combine voice, sound, graphics and other effects in preventives, to teach very difficult subjects. Computers are very useful in making instructions and skills available for learners to use at their convenience and as many time as possible. c.Communication: The ability to link people together for exchange of information is the goal of communication. The best of communication is today being done on computer networks. This aspect of computer application is the most paramount to this study, as most of the communication will be sent and received through computer. Apart from being a link between people in distant location, it also serves as a link for equipments and provides ready access to distant information bases.
According to Business Research Methods by Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2014), “business research is a process of planning, acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating relevant data, information, and insights to decision makers in ways that mobilize the organization to take appropriate actions that, in turn, maximize performance” (pg. 4). There are several stages involved in the research ...
2.2Computers in education
Computer facilities creativity and productivity as it provides for individual learning and development. Sandy (1983) said “computers are brain extenders” and that “they help to strengthen our minds and also enable us to do many routines task easily and quickly.” Hawk (1990) assumed some reasons for the inclusion of computers in education among them was that computer provides for both catalytic and pedagogic rationale in education. By catalytic rationale, these aspects deal the improvement in education, while by pedagogic rationale; it deals with a better way of learning method.
Having discussed about the importance of computers to the ICT world, it should be noted that teaching of business studies must be directed towards deductive and inductive reasoning, students will then be able to take materials dealing with business behavior and phenomena, and reason through their own analysis rather than passively describing business phenomena. The pedagogical emphasis should be on encouraging students to be inside the discipline, operating, in however limited a sense, as economists. In this way, business educationists are being faithful to the discipline and imparting business training to their students.
2.3Aims of business education: to think in a business way.
Introductory business courses are run in educational institutions all over the world. Although their structure may vary, the aims of the courses are constituent. The general aim is to provide students with an adequate knowledge and understanding of the tools of business analysis and of the situations and problems to which these tools are applied.
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To facilitate students to think in a business way, the introductory business courses must promote learner autonomy, and provide access to the world of business concepts and ideas. Autonomy is a capacity – for detachment, critical reflections, decision making, and independent action. It presumes but also entails that the learner will develop a particular kind of psychological relation to the process and content of his/her learning. The capacity of autonomy will be displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learnt to a wider context.
It is a common place to note that learning depends on access to adequate facilities, informed teachers, illuminating materials, and so on. However, students also need to gain access to the academic business environment, Laurillard (1993), claims that every academic subject faces this same kind of challenge, to help students go beyond their experience, to use it and reflect on it, and thereby change their perspective of it, and finally change the way they experience the world. 2.4Evaluation of students’ performance as a result of ICT Use of computer alongside internet for teaching and learning purposes has received increasing attention over the recent years (Multra, 2000).
A networked learning institution where students have easy access to computers could foster positive attitudes toward the use of computers in teaching and learning for a computer enriched learning environment was positively correlated with students attitude toward computer in general. (Mack, 1998).
Perceived integration of computers into learning system as completes instructional system in which student learning is impacted by lecturers. A student with positive attitudes towards using computers also has positive attitudes toward using computers for learning.
2.5Factors that promote students’ positive attitude towards computer education * Constant interaction with information technology, alongside integration computer learning.
* Sound foundation in computer education
* To promote computer education effectively in schools, it should be ensured that technology supports the educational goals and methodology.
* Use of technology at home should be encouraged
* Creation of board of computer education
* Build and operation computer laboratory
The former University of Philippines president Senator Edgard J. Angara (2009) who led the senate in its pursuit of legislation curriculum of student in schools enlightens that in countering the depressing effects and problems facing computer education; Economic lost ground will be regain thereby student should be updated with latest advance technology. Youth should be scientifically and technically prepared to fully tap their inner talents and contribution to national development (Angara, 2009).
2.6Students’ attitudes toward technology
Several studies have suggested that attitudes may be an important element in teaching children about computers (Woodrow, 1992 and Todaman Dick, 1993) stated “an important factor affecting the quality of the child’s experience of computer at school may be the teachers’ attitude toward computer acting to report by the office of Technology Assessment (OTA) there is a major problem with the exiting research assessing the import of technology. Most research relies on existing measure of students’ achievement. An important factor that needs to be included goes beyond student achievement and includes attitudinal measures. Student achievement is likely affected by their attitudes to school and learning (U.S congress, 1995).
Another important variable may be the environment for student instruction in computer.
In some cases the classroom tutor is in charge of computer instructions in the lab in which teacher may or may not integrate computer use with classroom instructions. There is also a need to ascertain the appropriate uses of computers in classroom and assess. The effect on teachers and students’ attitudes toward computer Nevertheless, throughout the review recurring solutions to student’s teachers attitudes to effective integration of technology is “Teachers Education in Schools as well as Readiness on students’ part. Olukemi, (2000) observed that since the teachers are the one who implement and impact computer Education knowledge, training should focus on them. Bukola, (2005) although it may not be agreed on how to involve technology in curriculum, one common goal is to foster favorable attitudes toward computers. If positive attitudes are developed in students, (Teachers) other objectives may become secondary. 2.7Opportunities and limitation of ICT in business education.
Research studies of ICT use in business education have shown that ICT empowers students and allows them access to the discipline. Various types of ICT tool are used in business courses: tutorial, testing, database, spreadsheet, and tools of local area network and the internet. Each provides opportunity for students to think ‘in a business way’. We should not dismiss the fact that traditional classrooms fast to support learner autonomy and provide access to the discipline; instead, taking the stance that ICT in an business/commerce class offers teachers more options to create learning environment that enables to think ‘in a business way’ whether these opportunities are perceived and taken up depends on the class participants, the tools and the learning environment. Perkins (1993) cites various studies to assert that it is erroneous to assume that ‘as long as a support system is available, people will more or less automatically take advantage of the opportunities that it affords’.
Dauite (1985) and Cochran-Smith (1991), in their studies of the use of word-processors in the classroom, observed that most students used them primarily to make minor stylistic, grammatical and spelling corrections to get nice print-outs. It was the more experienced writers that were able to utilize the powerful editing mechanisms of the word-processor. They used it to play their essays and make structural revisions that would have been done more painfully by hand. In their research, Ford (1995) states that most ICT packages do not have a significant effect on learning and teaching activities in schools because only a small proportion of their potential is used.
The extent to which learning opportunities are actually taken up depends on where and how ICT is situated in the class. For decades, according to research, there has been a lack of delivery systems designed to adjust teaching to individual students in the class. Advocates of ICT in education argued that ICT packages provide students with learners’ autonomy that is crucial to the learning process. The following sections discuss that different aspect of learner autonomy, learner control, task orientation and critical reflection.
It should be noted from above discussion that the world is fast changing in terms of technologies. The traditional way of teaching business studies in the classroom should be upgraded to the modern ways where ICT and other electronic media are used in teaching.
The advent of information and communication technologies (ICT) has made traditional formal educational no longer adequate to meet the needs of rapidly developing world and this fact motivated a burst into creative activities in designing appropriate non-formal methods as both an alternative and a supplement to the traditional ones. Through the ICT, the teaching of economics can be achieved in packaged instruction on some topics. This will go a long way in reducing stress on the part of the teacher and to create fun when handled by the students in and outside the classroom environment (osugbamide & Adebayo 2007).
If the use of ICT initiated by the relevant school administrators is accepted completely by the teachers, then students learning habits will change for the better and their performance when evaluated will soar positively.
This chapter describes procedures followed in achieving the goals and objectives of this research work: (The effectiveness of ICT in teaching of business studies in secondary schools. It refers to all the activities involved in the collection of necessary data needed for this research work. It includes research design, sampling plan, unit, frame, size, and method of collection and research instrument. The research methodology was discussed under the following headings:
i. Research design
ii. Population of the study
iii. Sample and sampling technique
iv. Research instrument
v. Field testing of research instrument
vi. Validity and reliability of research instrument
vii. Method of data collection
viii. Method of data analysis
The aim of this study is to find out the effectiveness of ICT in teaching of business studies in secondary school.
3.3Population of the study
The population of teachers for this research was taken from fifteen (15) secondary schools in Agege local government Area of Lagos State. The selection was made based on the fact that, with the advent of Lagos ‘EKO PROJECT’ in 2010, there is no school in Lagos State without computer(s) and internet facilitates.
Sampling is a process of measuring part of the population i.e. subset, which is subjected to intensive-study and analysis. The sample for the study comprised of fifteen randomly selected schools in Agege local government. They were selected using the simple random sampling technique. 3.5Research instrument:
The instrument used by the researcher in collecting data for the study includes-:
* A set of structured questionnaires. * Observation method was used for proper identification on the effectiveness of ICT in teaching of business studies in secondary school. * These questionnaires were used to collect information concerning the effectiveness of ICT in teaching of business studies in secondary school. Personal interviews were also conducted with a few teachers and the students to obtain views from them. 3.6Validity and reliability of research instrument:
The researcher submitted the questionnaires to the supervisor for face and content validity after which the instruments were administered.
3.7Method of data collection:
A total of Two-hundred (50) copies of the questionnaire were distributed by the researcher with the assistance of a research personnel or colleague to administer to Students in the various (selected) secondary schools. Retrievals were filled so as to avoid missing anyone and to give the researcher ample opportunity to respond on the spot to any likely question that may arise from filling the questionnaire. 3.8Method of data analysis:
The collected completed questionnaires were coded and analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages were used in analyzing demographic variables while the inferential statistics of Chi-square(x2) were used to test the stated hypotheses significance at “0.05” level of significance.