Carbohydrates: Short-Term Energy Storage Carbohydrates include biologically important molecules, sugars & starches. These molecules provide short-term energy to cells. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The carbon provides the “back-bone” of the molecule. Carbohydrates, like many other organic molecules, may be monomers or polymers.
The carbohydrates in the monomer form are known as monosaccharides. Glucose, for example, is a monosaccharide. Disaccharides are sugars that are made of 2 monosacchrides. Sucrose is an example of a disaccharide.
Disaccharides are formed by a process called dehydration synthesis (also known as condensation reaction).
In this process, a molecule of water is split out as the bond is formed. The disaccharides are broken down into monomers by a process called hydrolysis. Hydrolysis occurs when a molecule of water is used up as a bond is broken to make 2 smaller products. Polysacchrides are large carbohydrate molecules that are polymers of monosacchrides like glucose. Some important polysacchrides include starch, glycogen & cellulose.
Starch is the energy storage molecule in plants and a good source of energy for human cells. Glycogen is the short-term energy storage molecule in human cells. Cellulose is the molecule that makes up plant cell walls. Organisms must break down the polysaccharides to use the glucose.
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Lipids: Long-term Energy Storage Lipids: organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms but with relatively more hydrogen than a carbohydrate Examples: fats, phospholipids, waxes and steroids Human cells: fat serve as log-term energy storage molecules Phospholipids: forms cell membranes Steroids: include cholesterol and certain sex hormones Stored fat helps cushion and protect important organs such as the kidneys Fat: lipid, formed by fatty acids and glycerol molecules, that protect body structure, insulates the body and provides energy Fatty acids: molecule formed by a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with carboxyl (COOH) group at one end Unsaturated: fatty acids have one or more double bonds between carbons and so are not saturated with hydrogen Saturated: fatty acids have no double bonds between their carbon atoms and are literally saturated with hydrogen atoms Lipids made from saturated fatty acids are known as saturated fats. Eg. Red meat, dairy products Lipids containing unsaturated fatty acids are called unsaturated fats. Eg. Plants such as canola, corn, olives as well as some animal sources Certain unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, are essential in the human diet because they cannot be made by the body Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA): unsaturated fatty acid that may benefit human health, found in some meat and dairy products. Eg.
Beef, lamb, goat meat and dairy products Glycerol: organic molecule formed from three carbon atoms, each with a hydroxyl group attached; bond with fatty acids to form fat Adipose tissue: type of connective tissue that stores triglycerides in its fat cells essential fatty Acids: Linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic are essential fatty acids ~essential means that they must be present in your food Without these fatty acids, your cells are unable to make all of the fatty acids necessary to function properly.