1)a)Organelles and their Functions in the animal cell;
Cell Membrane: The cell membrane or (plasma membrane) surrounds all living cells. And it is the cell most important organelle. Its controls how substances can move in & out the cell and is responsible for many other properties of cell as well. Membrane are composed of phospholipid, protein and carbohydrates arranged in fluid mosaic structure.
Cytoplasm: In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is the part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope.it is the jelly- like substance in a cell that contain the cytosol, organelles and inclusions, but not including the nucleus. In fact, the cytoplasm and the nucleus make up the protoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.
Nucleus: This controls all cellular activity using coded instruction located in DNA.These coded instructions enable the cell make specific proteins.RNA is produced in the nucleus and leaves via the nucleus pore. The nucleus stores, replicates and decodes DNA.
Nucleoplasm: nucleoplasm also called nuclear sap or karyoplasm is the fluid usually found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. This fluid contains primarily water, dissolved ions, and a complex mixture of molecules. Its primary function is to act as a suspension medium for the organelle of the nucleus, other functions include the maintenance of nuclear shape and structure, and the transportation of ions, molecules, and other substance important to cell metabolism and function.
... proteins whose function is largely unknown. Nucleus The membrane-bounded structures contained within the cytoplasm of eukaryotes are referred to as organelles.The nucleus is ... may differ widely in appearance and function, all cells have a surrounding membrane and an internal, water-rich substance called the cytoplasm, the composition ...
Nucleolus: also called nucleoli a small rounded body within a resting nucleus that contains RNA and proteins and is involved in the production of ribosomes.
Nuclear membrane: The double –layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cell, separating the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm.
Organelles and their Functions in the plant cell
The plant cell has a cellulose cell wall, chloroplasts, and a sap vacuole lined by a tonoplast.
Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm function in a plant cell is almost similar to the cytoplasm function in the animal cell. In general, the cytoplasm function in a cell is almost a mechanical one. It provides support to internal structure by being a medium for their suspension, cytoplasm function in a cell includes its role in maintaining the shape and consistency of the cell .One of the most important cytoplasm function in a cell is that stores many chemicals that are inevitable for life.
Mitochondria: produce ATP, which is a form of energy to help with many processes, mitochondria is the singular version. In general mitochondria is a spherical or elongated organelles in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for conversion of food to unable energy .It consists of two membranes: an outer smooth membrane and an inner membrane arranged to form cristae.
Vacuole: This is a large space in a plant cell. Containing chemical such as glucose and mineral ions in water .this solution is the sap. It is surrounded by a membrane known as a tonoplast, It is important that a plant cell contains enough water to maintain internal hydrostatic pressure.
Chloroplast: These enable the plant to photosynthesis, making glucose. Each consists of an outer covering of two membranes. Inside are more membranes stacked in piles called grana. The membrane encloses a substance vital to photosynthesis, chlorophyll.
Intercellular space: cavities in plant tissues that are filled with air or with the secretions of surrounding cells, such as resins, essential oils or mucus.
Nucleus: both plant and animal are eukaryotes, meaning they have cells that contain the nucleus; the nucleus of plant cell is similar in many respects to the nucleus of animal cells. The nucleus is the storehouse of the cell’s DNA.
... semi permeable membrane which surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell. The cell membrane controls whatever enters and leaves the cell. All animal and plant cells have cell membranes. Phospholipids- This ... (oxygen) also diffusing through the membrane. Cholesterol- The main function cholesterol performs is providing stability for the membrane therefore making it less fluid ...
Nuclear membrane: The nuclear membrane in a plant cell acts to regulate traffic by determining which molecules can enter and exit. Messenger RNA, for example, cannot leave the nucleus until they have been appropriately modified. The complexes of proteins that form nuclear pores serve to control these ports of entry.