ARTHASASTRA AND FOREIGN POLICY” The welfare of the state depends on an active foreign policy.” – KautilyaCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. Kautilya’s Arthasastra is a treatise on artha and sa stra… Arthasastra is the science, which is the means of the acquisition and protection of Earth. Arthasastra could be regarded as the sa stra concerned with the general well being on earth. And since the state activity alone can make such a well being possible, the protection of Earth and it’s acquisition which are an essential part of state activity are declared to be province of this sa stra. The wide range of state activity covered in has a two-fold aim.
First it gives out how a ruler should protect his territory, which principally refers to administration of the state. Second, it gives out how territory should be acquired which principally is conquest of territory from others. This involves a consideration of the foreign policy of the state. 2. The name Arthasastra for the science of politics and administration finds its mention in the epic of Mahabaratha. The precepts of the science of administration and politics may have been framed by the early purohita’s for the guidance of the kings whom they served.
The precepts may be supposed to have been collected together and may thus have constituted as a manual for the guidance of rulers in general. Kautaliya may have put together these precepts and his may be the culmination of a long period of speculation and not its starting point. 3. Kautilya’s Arthasastra contains fifteen or books. Of these the first five deal with ‘tantra’ or the internal administration of the state.
... of events, the White House continued with its policy. The administrations most problematic response to the shut off of ... Western Europe, from the United States, and from the Soviet bloc. The Reagan Administration viewed the Sandinista government with ... Grenada recommended that Washington evacuate all Americans in Grenada. State Department Officials argued evacuation would be inadequate; instead ...
The next eight deals with ‘ava pa’ or its relation with the neighbouring states and the last two are miscellaneous in character. In the sixth the qualities, which make each of the seven prakrit is or constituents of the state ideal, are enumerated. The ‘Rajamandala’ or the Circle of kings as a preliminary to a discussion on the state’s relations with its neighbors is also discussed. The seventh describes the way in which each of the six gun as or measures of foreign policy may be used in the various situations that are likely to arise.
In the eighth the calamities or weakness affecting the various constituents are described. The ninth and tenth deals with the Army, mobilization and carrying out of expeditions, the eleventh describes how the would be conqueror should subjugate independent oligarchical principalities. The twelfth describes how a weak king when threatened by a stronger king should frustrate the latter’s design and ultimately overcome him. The thirteenth concerns the conquest of enemy’s capital by subterfuge or fighting. It also describes the administration of captured territory. 4.
Kautilya proposes that the kos ha or treasury is an essential element of the state. A king with a depleted treasury eats into the very vitality of its citizens and the country. At the same time a king who improvises his own people or angers them by unjust exactions will also lose their loyalty. A balance has to be maintained between the welfare of the people and augmenting the resources of the state. Kautaliya also propagates that the prosperity of the state and its inhabitants cannot be maintained unless new territory is acquired by settlement of virgin lands by alliance or by conquest. In a political environment, which had many states, any state resting content with its own territory was likely to fall prey to the expansionist ambitions of another.
... war, the West felt threatened by the continued expansion policy of the Soviet Union. Soviet Union also felt the fear of invasion from the West ... would rise in much of torn eastern Europe, the United States came up with the Marshall plan. The Marshall plan helped ... division or failure, of the communist state, might bring around their demise. In 1948 the Soviet Union directly challenged the US setting up ...
A king before moving on a campaign should first ensure that no has befallen any of the constituent elements of the state. The Arthasastra enumerates the role of state in maintaining the wealth of the nation, in welfare of people, maintaining relation between neighboring states and conduct of foreign policy based on relative strength of participants. The principles of foreign policy as given out in Arthasastra are as applicable today as they were in the third century BC. Kautaliya emphasizes the need of a strong economic and military might for a nation to pursue its national interests and has advocated a foreign policy for achievements of these national interests. 5. After the world war, two distinct blocs based on the communist and capitalist ideologies were formed with the Soviet Union and United States emerging as the dominant powers.
The cold war rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States of America dominated the foreign policies of all nations during this period. In the modern world, nations developed distinct personalities or styles that affected the manner in which they conducted themselves in the international arena. Both the Soviet Union and the United States vigorously pursued policies in furtherance of their perceived national interests. The two nations also strive d to become major economic powers by pursuing policies based on their ideals. In the case of the Soviet Union its outlook towards international relations can be understood by considering the Russian approach, Russia being the largest constituent of the Soviet Union. The Russians having had a long history of invasions have always felt insecure.
The Russian state has historically dealt with its security problem by centralizing power in an authoritarian state possessing large armies and by pushing outward in a bid to gain more territories. This outward thrust of power was a means of safeguarding own territories from invasion. The neighbouring states in fact viewed Russia as a threat to their territory. 6.
In the case of United States, it had a very peace full neighbourhood and has had no external security threats to its existence for most of its history. Events overseas appeared to have little to do with its development of democracy at home. The cold war ended with the break up of the Soviet Union and the demise of the communist ideology. The Soviet Union although a strong military power could never have a strong economy.
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The United States on the contrary developed strong economic and military might. CHAPTER IIMETHODOLOGYStatement of the Problem 1. The principles of foreign policy as enunciated by Kautilya have been proved by the results of the cold war. Justification of the Study 2. Kautiyla’s Arthasastra was written in the third century B. C.
though various authors have questioned the date of its composition. There are various factors, which point it to the period of Chandra Gupta Maurya. The science of politics and administration finds its mention in the great epic of Mahabaratha. Kautilya’s Arthasastra was composed mainly by bringing together all treatises on artha and sa stra written by earlier teachers.
Arthasastra may be understood as the science dealing with state affairs in the internal as well as the external sphere; in other words, it is the science of statecraft or of politics and administration. Of the fifteen or books contained in the Arthasastra eight deal with the relation of a state with its neighbouring states. Kautilya enumerates seven constituent elements of a state and also gives out the calamities, which can befall these constituent elements. For a state to be strong and stable it has to overcome the calamities to its constituent elements.
The seven elements of sovereignty of a state namely Swami, Amatya, Janapada, Durga, Kos, Bala and Mitra are integral parts of body politic, which lose their significance if treated in isolation from each other. Dandaniti according to Kautaliya concerned itself with four things: Acquisition of what has not been acquired, Ala bda Labharthah, preservation of what has been acquired, Lab dh Parirakshana, augmentation of what has so been preserved and Rakshita Vivardhini: Distribution among the deserved what has been so augmented. According to Kautilya ‘Rakshida Vivardhini’ is exploitation of natural resources and the development of national income of the country. In today’s world any nation will have four instruments of power to pursue its National Interests namely Diplomacy, Information, Military and Economy. The essentials for a strong state are territory, population to include their unity and organization, military might and economic power.
... any other State The government should not allow to be dictated by any foreign power in the making of our foreign policy Considerations: National ... for sectarian benefit [Art. VI, Sec. 29 (2)]. State Policies Foreign policy – the basic rules underlying the conduct by a ... measures calculated to ensure economic stability of all component elements of society; the humanization of laws and the equalization ...
Unity is the constitution of territory and population forming a political unit, and unless the community forms one coherent whole, politically both in its internal and external relations, there can be no state. The organization in a state presupposes the distinction between the governors and the governed and the establishment of settled relations of control and obedience either given by mutual consent or exacted through compulsion. During the cold war era there were two distinct blocs with very distinct political systems striving to establish their military and economic might over the world. The end result of this rivalry was the demise of the Soviet Bloc.
Was this due to the calamities, which befell the constituent elements of the Soviet state? The Janapada or the population of the Soviet state could never reconcile to the political system established by the state. The relations between the governors and the governed were exacted through compulsions rather than mutual consent. Scope 3. This study concentrates on the principles of foreign policy as enunciated by Kautaliya to include the aims of foreign policy and brings out their relevance in the context of the cold war era.
The constituent elements of a state and the calamities that can befall these constituent elements have been analysed with respect to the Soviet Union and the United States. Foreign Policy for the two super powers was a means of projecting their National power. The requirement of a strong economic might to sustain the military might and achieve the national interests have been brought out. The study has been limited to comparing the policies and actions of the Soviet Union and the United States during the cold war era.
The end of the cold war and the break up of the Soviet Union has proved the relevance of the foreign policy principles of Kautaliya in today’s world. Methods of Data Collection 4. All the information for the study has been gathered from various books, newspaper articles and the Internet. A bibliography of the various sources is appended at the end of the text.
... of the criminal justice policy. When you compare the similarities of the Federal and state governments, they have powers that they both share ... with foreign governments. They also regulate commerce between states and international trade, establish post offices and issue postage. The state government’s exclusive powers ...
Organisation of the Dissertation 5. It is proposed to study the subject under the following chapters: – (a) Constitutional elements of state. There are six elements, which constitute the state namely the ruler, the minister, the urban and rural population, the economic power and military state. An ideal state would have all six elements strong. The seventh element is the mitra or the ally.
The Soviet Union was formed after the Bolshevik revolution on communist ideology. But the mass of the population was always kept separated from the ruling elite. The United States in turn has been a one-class society. The political elite and the common mass shared a fundamental set of believes, values and attitudes. The constituent elements are complementary to each other and should not be affected by any. (b) Primary aim of foreign policy A nation’s foreign policy is guided by perceived national interests.
Kautilya advocates that immoral and unethical means are justified if interests of a state demand that. Kautaliya advocated that the aim of foreign policy of any state is increase of state power. This has to be at the cost of the state’s enemies or adversaries. The Soviet Union considered itself as the base for world revolution of the protectorate. The Soviets projected themselves as the great protectors of the protectorate class. But in times of crisis the Russian leaders’ appeal was to the Russian nationalism.
The aim of United States foreign policy during the years of cold war was the containment of communism. The United States projected itself as the protectors of democratic institutions and human rights. This found acceptability not only with the population of the United States but even in the darkest days of cold war had a much greater effect inside the Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. (c) Guiding principles of foreign policy Kautaliya proposes six principles for guiding a state’s foreign policy. The Arthasastra also provides practical advice for specific situations. Kautilya recommends the policy of sami dhi, which is the policy of peace if both sami dhi and or conflict is expected to lead to the same results, namely one’s own advancement in power.
The policy of leads to losses, expenses and other troubles. The cold war era could be seen as the Soviet-American duopoly with the Soviet Union and United States in command of their alliances. Although the allies of the Soviet Union were fully dependent on it for economic and military support, the spirit of nationalism, which was a potent political emotion challenged the reign of the super power right from the start. The Soviet Union’s brutal intervention and wretched quashing in Eastern Europe only produced bitterness and hatred.
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The Soviet Union could never pursue a policy of sami dhi with its neighbors. The policy of meant a state of hostility and lead to losses, expenses and other troubles. (d) Foreign policy as means of projecting national power. The success of a nation’s foreign policy depends on its power, not merely military but also economic. According to Kautilya for a strong foreign policy the King should first ensure that none of the constituent elements of the state suffer from any or calamity. Before starting on an expedition the King should satisfy himself that he is superior in all essential respects to the enemy against whom he proposes to march.
A policy of is recommended when one is strong. After the world war both the super powers started spreading their ideological base. Although it never resulted in an open conflict both the powers expended their resources in trying to dominate their regions. The Soviet state could not sustain the projection of national power due to the calamities, which befell its constituent elements. The American policy as in the Middle East was less a reaction to Soviet expansion than an effort to dominate the region and control their resources. The Americans could follow a policy of active interventionism and this has continued even after the demise of the cold war.
The invasion of Panama and The Gulf are cases in point. (e) Is Kautaliya valid today? So far as nature of human beings remains the same and states behave as they have done he will always be relevant. Its recommendations on foreign policy may be said to be relevant even today in the wider sphere of world politics. During the cold war era both the Soviet Union and the United States displayed blatant distrust for each other. The United State’s foreign policy was based on the containment of communism and the Soviet Union saw itself as the protector of the protectorates of the world. Both pursued their national interests tempered only by considerations of expediency, the efforts to secure alliances and the same cynical disregard for them in self-interests.
” In the interests of the prosperity of the country, a king should be diligent in foreseeing the possibility of calamities, try to avert them before they arise, overcome those which happen, remove all obstructions to economic activity and prevent loss of revenue to the state.” – Kautilya ” A country without people makes no sense, and there can be no kingdom without a country.” – Kautilya ” In the modern age a country’s power is manifested more in its ability to develop and use advanced technologies and ensuring a high level of well being of its people than in its military strength.” – Vladimir Putin- Russian President CHAPTER III CONSTITUTIONAL ELEMENTS OF THE STATE Elements Of The State 1. Kautaliya speaks of seven constituent elements of the state. The ‘Swamin’ or the ruler, ‘Amatya’ the minister, ‘Janapada’ the territory with people settled on it, ‘ Durga’ the fortified capital, ‘Danda’ the army and ‘Mitra’ the ally. The first six are the essential elements and the last in the list, viz the ally is the ruler of a different similarly organized state and forms no part of the other state’s internal organization.
This mention is primarily in connection with that state’s foreign policy. This doctrine of the prakrit is makes no direct mention of the citizen of the state but the refers to the territory of the state with people in it. The components are enumerated in the order of their relative importance. 2. Kautaliya also lists out the ‘ ‘ that can befall the components of the state.
The relative importance of the component of the state is based on the fact that if a befalling a particular component leads to the ruin of all other components that must be regarded as more serious. As per Kautaliya the ruler was the most important prakrit i. Kautilya compares the king to the state as head to the body. If the king is weak the enemy will find it easier to intrigue against the state. (8.
1. 12-18) The sa stra also refers to three sakti’s or powers that operate in a state. They are, , the personal energy and drive of the ruler himself, , the power of the army and the treasury, and, the power of counsel and diplomacy. These powers are thought of in a state’s relations with other states and have no bearing on the internal structure of a state’s organization. As per Kautaliya for a state’s relations with another state is more important than and mantra sakti is more important than both. 3.
Kautaliya propounds that any calamity to the people would affect the treasury and thereby the army of the state. For the fort, the treasury and the army all depend on the people. All economic activity according to Kautaliya has its source in the population. Kautilya also emphasizes the importance of finance over army.
The army is dependent on a strong finance for its upkeep. Finance is necessary to undertake any state endeavor and is the chief means for both dharma (righteous duty) and kama (enjoyment).
The Wardon’s Model 4. The constituent elements enunciated in the Arthasastra can be compared to the concept of center of gravity of a modern state as per the Wardon’s model. As per the model the center of gravity of a state can be shown by concentric circles representing the following: – (a) The Leadership. The innermost circle is the most important and can be equated with the ruler as enunciated in the Arthasastra.
Weakening of the leadership would lead to the collapse of the state. As per Kautaliya any affecting the king would affect all other constituent elements of the state. (b) The Industry and Infrastructure. This forms the economic might of the state.
The Arthasastra mentions it as the ‘kos a’ or the treasury. Any affecting this would affect the population and the military power of the state. (c) The Population. The population is an important element of the center of gravity of the state. Any befalling the population will have its repercussions on the military capability of the state. (d) The Armed Forces.
The armed forces form the outermost ring of the center of gravity of a state. It protects all other elements of the state from external aggression. But any affecting any other element of the state would have a direct bearing on the armed forces. Constituent Elements Of The Soviet State 5. The Soviet Union was born after the Bolshevik revolution on the communist ideology.
Although communism propagated a government of the masses, the mass of the population was always kept separated from the political elite. The political elite were much more distinct and far lesser in the system than the Western societies. The ruling elite belonging to the communist party had monopolized all powers, with the people hardly having any say. The population, which forms an essential element of the state, was neglected. Thus the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 had created a state that was flawed from its inception. The constituent elements of the state were not strong.
It created ” an entirely new species of state unknown in the annals of human history- a party state in which the people were a powerless instrument.” 6. Another area of failure of the Soviet state was the leadership struggle after the death of a leader. There was never a clear succession. The Russian communists had contrived a monopoly of power in a monolithic state. But they were not able to provide effective machinery for the orderly transfer of authority. “Of all those areas which Russian secrecy guards, none is more jealously sheltered than the inner area of decision making where personalities and ambitions, rivalries and emotional clash.
Like subterranean monsters Russian masters grapple with each other in the deep beyond the range of sight and only an occasional stinking bubble breaking to surface tells us that a struggle is going on at all.” The lack of a clear and transparent succession of power weakened the leadership of the state. A calamity affecting this important constituent element of the state threatened the very existence of the state. 7. During the cold war era the Soviet Union struggled to counter its perceived threat to communism from the United States. As a result of this the economy of the state suffered. Resources had to be stolen from the domestic economy and poured into the military.
Stalin and his allies reverted to rule by terror, military style economic mobilization and imposition of a rigid ideological conformity. Economy, which is another constituent element of the nation state, could never cope with the expensive military build-ups. It was not only the American military power, which finally ended the Soviet threat. The defence build up between the two super powers finally forced the Soviet Union to acknowledge the failure of their economic system. Constituent Elements Of The United States 8.
The United States in turn was a one-class society. The political elite and the common population shared a fundamental set of beliefs, values and attitudes. The Leadership of the state was strong, with a clear and transparent system of succession of power. The population of the state was vibrant and had complete participation in the affairs of the state. Its economy was strong enough to support large and armed forces, which in turn protected all other elements of the state. Thus the constituent elements of the state were complementary to each other and were not affected by any.
9. The end of the cold war and the breakup of the Soviet Union were more due to the implosion caused within the Soviet state rather than American military power. The constituent elements of the state, as enunciated by Kautaliya in the Arthasastra, were affected by a number of calamities in the Soviet Union. As such the state was never a viable entity. ” The enemy, however strong he may be, becomes vulnerable to harassment and destruction when he is squeezed between the conqueror and his allies.” – Kautilya ” An enemy’s destruction shall be brought about even at the cost of great losses in men, material and wealth.” – Kautilya “Russia will pursue a less ambitious and more pragmatic and assertive foreign policy in the coming century aimed at facilitating its economic revival. Our foreign policy priorities would be defined on the basis of domestic priorities and pragmatic interests of our economy.” -Vladimir Putin CHAPTER IV AIMS OF FOREIGN POLICY 1.
As per Kautaliya the goal set before the ruler is the expansion of the territory. The ruler should be desirous of conquering other territory. Kautaliya describes three types of conquerors. Dharmavijayan, who makes conquests for the sake of glory, and who is satisfied by mere submission by the other king; Lobhavijayan, who makes conquests out of greed and is out to obtain land or money or both; Asuravijayan, who makes conquests like a demon and seizes land, money sons and wives of conquered kings and takes his life. 2. The aim of foreign policy of a state is the increase of state’s power.
This has to be at the cost of the state’s enemies or adversaries. Kautaliya emphasizes that the state’s interests have to be supreme and advocates various policies for the furtherance of these interests. The means recommended by Kautaliya for achievement of national interests are often obnoxious from moral point of view. Such means are recommended against intractable enemies of the state and are justified in the interests of the state.
The morally unjustifiable actions are to be resorted in the supreme interests of the state when the security and independence of the state as such is threatened. Kautaliya enumerates that every state considers its own interests as supreme and in their defence resorts to actions that appear unethical. Soviet Union And Its Aims Of Foreign Policy 3. Russia from the times of the Czars have sought to develop and consolidate resources, human and natural, of their vast landmass to acquire windows to the west, gain access to the oceans without abandoning their self imposed isolation. The Russians followed an expansionist policy steadily overwhelming the neighbouring smaller states in both Europe and Central Asia.
After the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 the communist doctrine of a world revolution gave a different aim to the Soviet foreign policy. 4. The Soviet Union considered itself as the base for world revolution of the protectorate. It considered each communist country as a ‘nation state’ and as a member of the ‘World Socialist camp.’ The export of the communist ideology was the basic aim of the Soviet foreign policy. The communist ideology had no place for the cultural identity of the population and the historical background of the state. It was thus that atheism was forced upon the predominantly Muslim states of Central Asia.
The aim of the foreign policy pursued by the Soviet state could never have the support of the population of the state. 5. Although the Russian foreign policy aimed at propagating the communist ideology and saw all communist countries as members of the ‘world socialist camp’ in times of crisis the appeal of the Russian leaders was to Russian nationalism. Thus “today the old world revolutionary trend although dimmed and anemic, still prevails. As new tendencies crystallize, the two components of Soviet policy – Russian national interests and communist – will tend to get divorced in Soviet minds and actions. In the end the first must prevail though not without great internal crisis.” Due to the nature of the foreign policy aim pursued by the Soviet state the basic inescapable relation of the Soviet state to the other states was one of conflict.
It perceived that the outcome of this conflict was to be the victory of the Soviet state. In pursuance of this perception the Soviet state had to build up a powerful military might. This proved too expensive and led to its collapse, as the economy could never support the aims of the state’s foreign policy. Aim Of Foreign Policy Of The United States 6. The aim of the foreign policy of the United States during the cold war era was the containment of communism. The United States took upon itself the task of protecting democratic ideals world wide against the onslaught of communism.
The people of the United States of America believed and fully supported the ideals propagated by their government. Unlike the communist ideology the democratic ideals showed greater respect to the cultural identities of the population and the historical background of the state. 7. Even during the darkest days of the cold war the United State’s support for democratic institutions and human rights had a great effect inside the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The United States gave strong support both morally and economically to underground groups and solidarity movements in communist countries like that of Poland. The Voice of America and Radio Free Europe broadcasts and the activities of Americans at review conferences were fundamental in maintaining the hopes of these movements and providing them mechanisms to resist in their own countries.
Ernst Kure a distinguished commentator on communist affairs commented that the Helsinki process, as the meetings and procedures of CSCE are commonly called had a greater influence on developments in Eastern Europe than Gorbhachev’s perestroika. 8. The United States propounded free market economy as opposed to the state controlled economy of the communist states. This ideology was strongly backed by a powerful state both economically and militarily. The political system was also vibrant with the full participation of the population. The end of the world war resulted in the formation of the two power blocs.
The Warsaw pact came into existence more by force of the Soviet military power than by any common ideological beliefs of the people of the states concerned. The countries of the NATO had a singular aim of the preservation of democratic ideals. This had the full support of the population. The aim pursued by these nations had the full backing of all the constituent elements. The end of the cold war and the breakup of the Warsaw Pact clearly prove this fact.
” The king who understands the interdependence of the six methods of foreign policy, plays as he pleases, with other rulers bound to him by the chains of his intellect.” – Kautilya CHAPTER GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF FOREIGN POLICY 1. Kautaliya related the defence of a state with its foreign relations. A state has to be defended from its hostile neighbours. Kautaliya discusses foreign relations from the point of view of ‘Vijigisu’. The is the conqueror state. It seeks to show how a state desirous of extending its influence and expanding its territory, should conduct its relations with foreign state.
2. Kautaliya sums up the foreign policy in the formula of ” or the six measures. It’s based on the theory of Rajamandala or ‘Circle of Kings’. The mandala is described to consist of twelve states with ” being the conqueror state and the are the hostile state with territory contagious with the. In addition are the with territory adjoining that of and are and stronger than either of these and ”, the state lying outside or the indifferent or neutral king, more powerful than the, the are and the. Each of these kings would have a mitra or ally and mitra mitra or ally’s ally, thus making a total of twelve kings.
This is supported by the common view that two neighbouring states with conflicting interests tend to be hostile to each other and states with common enemy tend to be allies. (See Appx ‘A’) 3. The ‘Rajamandala’ or ‘Mandala’ as explained by Kautaliya was a conglomeration of states loosely divided into two or more less hostile camps with the leader of one group trying to establish its hegemony over the entire conglomeration. It thus refers to the number of relationships that is likely to arise when a state tries to establish its supremacy over a number of neighbouring states. In the modern world a nation state imposing its influence over another state is bound to develop such relations. In a regular mandala a king should first aim to conquer the are.
Madhyama and Udi sana have to be subdued. When faced with a number of hostile kings, they should be tackled one by one. In all this securing the allegiance of the allies is important. Six Gun as For Foreign Policy 4.
The formula of, which sums up Kautaliya’s foreign policy principles, consists of six gun as or policies. These cater for different situations in international relations: – (a) Sam dhi. This is the policy of peace that entails making a treaty containing conditions or terms. Kautaliya recommends this to be followed when one is weaker than the enemy. (b) Vig raha.
This is the policy of hostility, which is recommended to be followed when one is stronger than the enemy. (c) Asana. This is the policy of remaining neutral and is recommended to be followed when both states are equal. (d) Yana. This policy is to be adopted when one King is stronger by a large degree.
This would involve posturing an aggressive attitude to undertaking an expedition to conquer. (e) Samsraya. Samsraya is the policy of seeking shelter with another stronger king. This could be by entering into alliances or by signing a treaty whereby the stronger king guarantees the security of the weaker one. (f) Dvaidhibhava.
This is the double policy of sam dhi with one king and with another at the same time. It’s recommended when with help from another source one can fight one’s enemy. Situations And The Policy Recommended 5. “There are really six measures, because of differences in the situation. Among them, entering into a treaty is peace.
Doing injury is war. Remaining indifferent is staying quiet. Augmentation of power is marching. Submitting to another is seeking shelter. Resorting to peace with one and war with another is dual policy ” says Kautaliya. A policy of sami dhi is recommended if both sami dhi and are expected to lead to the same results, namely one’s own advancement in power.
The policy of leads to losses, expenses and other troubles. It would mean a state of hostility that has offensive as well as defensive purpose. A successful repulsion of enemy attack would involve a policy of and not that of sami dhi. When one’s enemy is engaged in a war on another front a policy of should be adopted to seize enemy’s territory.
Asana is the policy of waiting in the expectation that the enemy would grow weaker, find himself in difficulties or get involved in some war. It also includes waiting in the hope that, in the meanwhile, one would oneself become more powerful than the enemy. Getting other kings to march with one is yana. This is a confederacy formed against ‘s enemy. Kautaliya explains the methodology of leading a confederacy and the favors to be extended to one’s allies. The allies may be promised a share out of the gains of the joint expedition, either as fixed beforehand or in conformity with each one’s contribution or effort in joint venture.
A confederacy to be successful should keep to these mutually agreed principles. Kautaliya also visualized the possibility of the after success of the expedition cheating the confederates of their due share and gives suitable advice on what they should do on such an eventuality. 6. The purpose of all policy is to secure an increase in one’s power, principally at the cost of one’s natural enemy.
This increase in power is intended as a preliminary to the realization of the ambition to conquer the world as proved by the policies during the cold war era. The adoption of one or the other of the six policies by the state are to be solely guided by this consideration. The interest of one’s own state is to be the supreme criterion, and expediency is to decide which policy would be most advantageous under the circumstances. The appropriate use of the six measures, enables the, to play with the other kings as he pleases, as they become tied to him by the chain of his powers. Kautaliya says ” when in decline as compared to the enemy, he should make peace, when prospering he should make war. When he thinks the enemy is not able to do harm to me, or I to him, he should stay quiet.
When possessed with a preponderance of excellent qualities, he should march. Depleted in power he should seek shelter. In a work that can be achieved with the help of an associate, he should resort to a dual policy. Of these he should follow a policy by resorting to which he may be able to promote his own under takings concerning forts, waterworks, trade routes, settling on wastelands, mines, material forests and elephant forests and injure those undertakings of the enemy.” 7. The one policy, which Kautaliya strongly recommends, is the policy of sami dhi.
By following this policy one can strengthen one’s powers at the same time undertake measures to weaken the enemy’s powers. Kautaliya proposes that ” by remaining at peace, I shall ruin the enemy’s undertakings by my own undertakings bearing abundant fruits; or, I shall enjoy my own undertakings bearing abundant fruits than the undertakings of the enemy; or by creating confidence by means of the peace, I shall ruin the enemy’s undertakings by the employment of secret remedies or occult practices; I shall easily entice away the persons capable of carrying out the enemy’s undertakings by offering a greater remuneration from my own undertakings with facilities, favours and exemptions; or I shall keep prolonged the war with the king, being at war with whom he is making peace with me; or he will harass the country of the king who is in alliance with me (but is) hostile to me; or, his country, laid waste by his enemy, will come to me, so that I will achieve advancement in my undertakings; or, with his undertakings ruined (and himself) placed in a difficult situation, would not attack my undertakings; or, by making peace with the enemy I shall divide from him the circle (of kings) which is attached to the enemy, (and) when divided, I shall secure it; or, by giving support to the enemy by favouring him with troops when he seeks to seize the circle, I shall create hostility towards him, (and) when he faces hostility I shall get him destroyed by that same (circle).” Advancement of one’s powers by maintaining a policy of peace is what is recommended by Kautaliya. 8. Along with the six policies there is also the mention of the four – saman, dana, bed a and dan da. Kautaliya recommends saman and dana for subjugation of the weak kings and bed a and dan da for the stronger kings. The use of the earlier up aya is preferred to that of the later one.
Here saman will be akin to sami dhi and dan da would be like and yana combined. Cold War Era And The Six Policies 9. The cold war era could be seen as Soviet American duopoly with the Soviet Union and the United States in full command of their alliances. Both the powers propagated their own ideals and the nations were seen either as pro or anti a particular bloc. There was no place for neutral nations in this game. It was considered a zero sum game with one’s victory the other’s defeat.
After the world war as the European empires were being dismantled one nation after the other achieved formal political independence. These newly independent nations were vulnerable both politically and economically. 10. These nations were also born with territorial disputes with their neighbours and clashing economic interests. In some cases territorial divisions saw the populations getting divided into two ideologically different entities.
All this gave both the super powers ample opportunities to recruit or far worse to lose allies in the great zero-sum game of cold war politics. Both the powers had their national interests in focus while dealing with each other and with other nations. 11. Formation of power blocs. The formation of the NATO and Warsaw Pact after the World war can be compared with the theory of ‘Rajamandala’ or the ‘Circle of Kings.’ The two blocs were formed as a conglomeration of states bound by a common ideology or due to the security concerns of the states. The blocs were hostile to each other and did every thing to undermine each other’s supremacy.
The leaders of these groups were the two super powers and both the powers established hegemony over their respective conglomerations. The various relationships that evolved when the powers tried to establish their supremacy over the nations of the bloc can be explained by the Rajamandala theory. The relations between two hostile nations could be explained by the concept of the ” and the ‘are ” with the being the conqueror nation and the are its enemy. The had to cater for the ‘Madhyama’, which could be a state having interests with both the, the conqueror, and the are, its enemy. It could be an ally of either of them. And above all this was the ‘Udasina’ or the state, which was more powerful than all the states concerned.
During the cold war era the were the two super powers with their interests extending much beyond their territorial limits. Any state intending to subdue its enemy had to consider the interests of the two super powers as said by Kautaliya ‘ in a regular mandala a should not only aim to conquer the are but also cater for the and the.’ Application of the six measures 12. In the cold war era the relationship between the two super powers went through various phases which can be studied under the six measures as enunciated by Kautilya. During the establishment of the communist empire the Soviet Union followed the principle of.
The communists distinguished between certain kinds of war, such as imperialist wars, revolutionary wars and wars of national liberation- seeds of war they argued are inherent in capitalism and imperialism. The establishment of communist rule in various states thus saw lots of blood shed. 13. Although the communists never attempted to glorify war itself, they appeared to believe that they cannot achieve their final goals without war, and they preached the inevitability of conflict with the capitalist world. Lenin in a famous passage predicted a series of frightful collisions between the Soviet Republic and the bourgeois state. Stalin declared, ” Capitalism can only be overthrown by revolution which will take the form of protracted and violent struggle to death.” The Marxist view accorded distinction between just and unjust wars.
This policy of followed by the Soviet Union led to lots of losses and mistrust towards it even among its allies. The Soviet Union formed alliances with a number of satellite states on the common ideology of communism. These states and alliances were not immune to the strong sense of nationalism. Nationalism, which is the most potent political emotion, challenged the reigns of the Soviet Union almost from the start. Although the allies were fully dependent on the economic and military support from the Soviet Union they had their own strong nationalist feelings. The Soviet Union’s brutal intervention and wretched quashing in Eastern Europe only produced bitterness and hatred.
Vladimir Putin the Russian president said, ” In the Soviet days we so much scared the world that huge political and military blocs emerged. Did we really benefit from this? Of course not.” The nationalist feelings of the satellite states and the hatred towards the Soviet Union due to its policy of finally resulted in the manifestation of a struggle for greater independence from the Soviet Union among the satellite states of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. 14. During the formative years the concept of communism was anathema to the imperialist west. The existing powers refused to recognize the newly formed communist state. This newly formed vulnerable state entered into a number of agreements- numbering to 234 bilateral and 57 multilateral agreements between 1920 and 1937.
Many of these were non-aggression pacts. Thus a weak and vulnerable Soviet state followed a policy of sami dhi when faced with the stronger imperialist powers. After World War II and with the establishment of its military power the Soviet Union became more aggressive and adopted the policy of ‘yana’ when it physically occupied the weaker Eastern European states and spread the communist ideology. 15. The cold war era saw the two super powers under taking measures to undermine each other’s superiority. Where their interests did not clash they let the other power extend its influence.
The world was thus divided into distinct areas of influence of the two powers. Where the United States considered South and Central America, as its own backyard the Soviet Union accepted no interference in Eastern Europe. The Cuban missile crisis and the brutal suppression of the rebellion in Czechoslovak and Hungary are cases in point. Both the powers followed a policy of ‘a sana’ where they accepted each other’s might in their own areas of influence. 16. The two powers also followed a policy of making the other power bleed in its war with a third country.
Kautaliya had enunciated that by supporting a king who is at war with one’s enemy one could sufficiently weaken the enemy to destroy him. The Soviet Union’s support to Vietnam in its war against the United States and the American intervention in Afghanistan against the Soviet occupation are examples. Although the Americans could get over their defeat in Vietnam the Soviet Union’s intervention in Afghanistan and the subsequent American actions were one of the major cause for the breakup of the Soviet Union. 17. The United States also followed a policy of building a strong economy to support its military might. The United States concentrated on ‘sami dhi’ to develop its strength thereby undermining the enemy.
The Americans concentrated on economic and other measures to break the communist power. The American projection of a free market economy and its democratic values had a direct effect on the population of the communist world. The various economic and other measures undertaken by the United States to break the fragile and hollow Soviet economy finally fructified with the breakup of the Soviet Union. CHAPTER VI FOREIGN POLICY AND PROJECTION OF NATIONAL POWER Essentials For Projection Of Power 1. Kautaliya recommended a number of precautions, which had to be undertaken before a King embarked on an aggressive foreign policy. First and foremost was that none of the ‘prakrit is’ or constituent elements of the state suffered from a ” or calamity.
The of a constituent would not only render that constituent unserviceable but would also hamper the efficiency of other constituents. To embark on an aggressive and strong foreign policy the king should ensure to overcome a that may have affected any prakrit i and also remove all causes that is likely to lead to a in future. 2. Kautaliya recommended that before starting on an expedition the king should satisfy himself that he is superior in all essential respects to the enemy against whom he propose to march. These include the three namely- ‘uts aha’ the energy, bravery and personal energy of king himself, ‘pra bhava’ or the material resources consisting of the treasury and the army and ‘mantra’, which is good counsel and diplomacy. Of these mantra sakti or the essentials of diplomacy finds considerable mention in Kautaliya’s.
In the modern world uts aha sakti is the type of leadership or the system of governance of a nation, the pra bhava sakti is the economic and military might of the nation and the mantra sakti is the effective utilization of a nation’s economic and military might for dealing with the other nations. Expansion Of Territory 3. To build an empire one would have to undertake a number of successive conquests. Conquest of a territory would mean its complete annexation. Kautaliya recommended a policy of ” or pacification of what is conquered. An effort should be made by the conqueror king to consolidate the conquered territories by proving his bona fides and eliminating mischievous and harmful elements.
Kautaliya also enunciates that conquest is not the only method of expansion of one’s territory. Conquest and military campaigns would lead to bloodshed and losses to both the conqueror and the conquered territories. Subsequent integration of the conquered areas into one’s own kingdom and implementation of the policy of ” would be more difficult. According to Kautaliya a submission of the king, whose territory has to be annexed, as a suzerain or vassal would also lead to empire building. Kautaliya recommends a policy of when one is strong and a policy of sami dhi or peace is forced on when one is comparatively weak. As a further elaboration of this Kautaliya says that a king when forced to enter into a sam dhi is advised to thwart or outwit the strong enemy when fulfilling the terms of the treaty and after biding his time till he gets strong, to over throw the strong enemy.
Every sam dhi according to Kautaliya was a temporary measure to be abrogated when one has grown in strength. In this Kautaliya gives a veiled message to the conquering king of the true intentions of a weaker king who accepts his suzerainty. A king or a state expanding its territory should always be on guard against an uprising by the vassal state. Expansion Policy By The Super Powers 4. After the end of the world war the European empires began to be dismantled and one nation after the other achieved political independence. One thing these newly independent nations had in common was their hatred against imperialism and the capitalist policies propagated by the old imperialist powers.
Thus in the competition for allies and possible clients among developing countries, the Soviet Union had some real advantages. The linked political, military and economic achievements of the communist bloc not only served to give it the appearance and viability but allowed communism to be seen as a possible model for economic and social development in the so called third world. 5. The Soviet foreign policy was oriented to take advantage of this colonial discontent.
They propounded a strategy of national liberation leading ultimately to socialism. The attraction of socialism within the less developed regions of the world were two fold. It was first of all a strategy for conducting the struggle for independence; a strategy with muscle, for movements following such a path could count on support from the Soviet Union in the form of weapons and diplomatic leverage. Even when nationalist leaders had come to power with out following the socialist strategy of national liberation, the line of socialism as a model of autonomous national economic development was considerable. Add this strategic asset to the achievements off this socialist bloc in terms of consolidation of political power at home, the gradual recognition afforded to these nation by the international community and growing military strength and its clear that ‘communist challenge’ at least through the early and mid 1970 s was formidable. Where this strategy was not successful, as in Europe, the Soviet Union resorted to physical conquests.
The brutal interventions in Eastern Europe and the establishment of communist governments in these states are examples. 6. The Soviet Union thus became the main power of the communist block. Since the ideology was found attractive by the newly independent countries, the preachers of communism found it easy to get new allies.
But by the mid 70 s this attractive ideology was no longer self-sustaining. The pangs of nationalism and the awakening to the cultural identities of these communist states saw the populace of these nations questioning this ideology. The Soviet Union also felt the to its constituent elements. It could no longer sustain a foreign policy for projection of its national power.
The three of the state, i. e. , the leader ship was wrecked by frequent power struggle; the pra bhava sakti, or the economic and military resources crumbled; and the mantra sakti, or diplomacy could no longer sustain the rosy picture of communist ideology. The Soviet Union also failed to consolidate the annexed territories of Eastern Europe. The policy of ”or pacification of the conquered territory could never be achieved as the nationalist feelings of the countries of Eastern Europe could not be suppressed. The foreign policy for projection of its national power by Soviet Union was thus failed which ultimately resulted in break up of the communist block.
” The root of wealth is economic activity and lack of it brings material distress. In the absence of fruitful economic activity, both current prosperity and future growth are in danger of destruction.” – KautilyaCHAPTER VII IS KAUTILYA VALID TODAY? 1. Kautilya’s is not a treatise based on general principles but a work concerned with recommending practicable policies in any conceivable situation that may arise in actual political life. And its visualization of such situation and the courses that are then open to a state is characterized by a realism that is altogether unique. Its teachings have not lost its relevance even today. The cold war between the two super powers ended with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the United States survived as the sole super power.
The nature and scope of nation states would have been completely different from what it is today. But the various principles of statecraft, diplomacy and nation building enunciated by Kautaliya could be seen in the context of the end results of the cold war. 2. Kautilya’s Arthasastra is a work on the practical administration of state. It was written in a period when a number of states had rulers who were striving to establish their authority. The appearance of empires in India off and on did not affect the general pattern of political life, characterised by a number of monarchial states contending with one another for supremacy.
Hence the teaching of the sa stra did not lose its validity. The significance of teachings off Arthasastra in modern times or at present times considering the types of goats in existence, it can be said that it is not of much relevance in all spheres even in Indian conditions. Monarchy has disappeared and democracy has come into existence. Republics with parliamentary or presidential form of governments was inconceivable to the writer. A number of departments visualized in the sa stra have no relevance today. Nevertheless what the sa stra has to say on some matters is not without relevance even today.
Its recommendation about the secret service for keeping a watch over state servants or over the political activities of the subjects is relevant even today in some nation states. Its recommendation in foreign policy may be said to be relevant even today in the wider sphere of world politics. The distrust of one nation by another, the pursuit of its own national interest by any state tempered only by consideration of expediency, the efforts to secure alliances and the same cynical disregard for them in self interest, the types of intelligence agencies maintained by the nation in the territory of another are some examples. The cold war tactics, which came into being after world war II are not essentially different from what the text recommends for under similar circumstances. Although in modern times, it difficult for a nation to pursue a blatantly selfish policy, the rivalry and struggle for supremacy between nations would continue until some form of world govt or a supra national authority is established.
The Arthasastra, which is based on these basic facts, can thus never be rendered superfluous. Kautaliya’s counsels and the Soviet Union 3. The Soviet Union was a police state committed to the dogmas of class war and capitalist conspiracy and denied the countervailing checks of free speech and press. The Soviet leaders used the cold war to justify their arbitrary powers and demanded awful sacrifices from the Soviet people. The communist bloc led by the Soviet Union was composed of hollow regimes with weak economies bent on enhancing their military potential. After the end of the Stalinist era the subsequent Soviet leaders brought in gradual liberalization of political authority, which showed socialism did not require terror for its survival.
4. Another area of failure of the Soviet state was the collective farming. The forced collectivization of the late 1920 s and early 1930 s had left the agricultural population sullen and embittered and the rural economy virtually lifeless. The livelihood of the peasants depended not only on the fertility of the soil, and the weather – the normal risks attached to farming but also on the state policies in their areas; the level of mandatory deliveries to the government and prices paid for them; and the cost of inputs available through the state.
Procurement levels were high and prices paid entirely low. Thus as industry made rapid progress during the same period and wages of urban workers increased significantly, agriculture stagnated and peasants struggled to survive. The also makes it clear that all land is supposed to belong to the king, that is, to the state. Land, which is ready for agriculture, can be given as grant to those willing to pay the taxes. The grant is to be made for life only, implying that the farmers are not the full owners. But the also recognized private ownership of land.
The existence of state farms is shown by the description of the duties of the ”. Land, which was not under his supervision, could be supposed to have belonged to private owners. The also speaks of people paying sales tax on the sale of their produce other than that which is promised to the state. All this goes on to show that the citizen could own various kinds of property, including land without detriment to the king’s sovereignty. 5. The United State in turn was a free society.
The post war era was one of progress and plenty. Even cynical European commentators were swept up in admiration of the American economy. There never was a country more fabulous than America, declared a British observer in the late 1940 s. ” She sits bestride the world like a colossus. Half the wealth of the world, more than half of productivity, nearly two third of the world machines are concentrated in American hands; the rest of the world lies in the shadow of the American industry.” CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION 1. Kautilya’s counsels on the relationship between the ruler and the ruled, on the role of the state for maintaining the wealth of the nation and the welfare of the people, on the relation between neighbouring states, on alliances and on conduct of foreign policy based on relative strength of participants are as applicable today as they were in his day.
To comprehend Kautilya’s teachings clearly and apply them judiciously to the modern world one has to be aware of the essential characteristics of his work. The treatise is about an ideal state, one which ever existed or will exist in future is not known. To the extend that the six constituent elements of a state, the ruler, the ministers, the urban and rural population, the economic power and military might, differ from ideals Kautilya has set out, to that extend, the advice given by him has to be modified. 2.
Kautilya’s enunciation of the constituent elements of a state and their relative importance can be said to be true even in the modern context. A state with any of these elements weak can never pursue a strong foreign policy. Kautilya recommended that a king before undertaking any major campaign should ensure that none of the constituent elements where effected by any. This can be compared to the conditions existing in the Soviet Union and the United States during the cold war era. The Soviet Union suffered a number of to its population, leadership and economy, which affected its military strength and projection of national power. The United States was much stronger in all its constituent elements.
3. The six principles of foreign policy given out by Kautilya were based on the theory of ‘Raj Mandala’. The formation of the two blocs during the cold war era could be a broad comparison to this. The also recommends the various policies to be followed during various situations but emphasizes the importance of policy of sam dhi for over all development of state and also to avoid losses. The Soviet- American conflict during the cold war and the propagation of each other’s ideologies had these situations.
The Soviet Union tended to adopt a policy of or conflict which in turn adversely affected the development of the state. 4. Kautilya cited that the aim of the foreign policy of any state was the enhancement of its power. The interest of the state was supreme and the steps recommended by him were at times unethical and immoral. During the cold war the projection of each other’s ideologies were a major aim of the two powers. The practices followed and the measures adopted by the two powers in the pursuance of these aims were also immoral and unethical.
To what extend each of these powers could sustain this aim was proved by the end of the cold war and break of the Soviet Union. 5. Kautilya’s Arthasastra is not a treatise based on general principles but a work concerned with recommending practicable policies in any conceivable situation. He visualizes various situations and recommends the courses open to a state under these situations. The extend to which these policies and situations are valid in the case of modern states depends on interpretation of these keeping in mind the system that existed during those times. A study of these counsels of Kautaliya and a comparison of these with the policies followed by the Soviet Union and the United States during the cold war era has been made.
The policies and actions of the Soviet Union were at variance with that enunciated by Kautaliya. The end of the cold war and subsequent break up of the Soviet Union thus further reinforces the principles enunciated by Kautaliya in the. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books 1. Cronin, James. The World The Cold War Made.
New York, Routledge, 1996. 2. Hogan, J Michael. The End Of Cold War-Its Meanings and Implications. Ohio State University, Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. 3.
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15. Appx ‘A’ (Refers to Para 2 of Chapter V) CIRCLE OF KINGS.