CHEMISTRY IN 2050
“Chemistry is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating ten more.” That’s the beauty of Chemistry. For anyone with creativity, intelligence, and persistence, Chemistry will never fail to provide new and exciting challenges whether it is 2011 or 2050……..— so lots of fun!” & read this carefully ……………..I am sure you will like this…
Chemistry is a mature field. But the question is that: Where will be the chemistry in 2050? Or simply we can say what the future of chemistry is likely to be. Will there be exciting new developments? Or is most of the chemistry already done? Will chemistry and chemists have interesting, intellectually stimulating work to do? Or Will becoming a chemist be tantamount to becoming a drudge? So Before answering the above questions, let us know:what is chemistry what is the history of chemistry What is the importance of chemistry in our present everyday life?
What is chemistry?
Chemistry is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. Chemistry is the scientific study of interaction of chemical substances that are constituted of atoms or the subatomic particles.
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What is the history of chemistry?
The word chemistry comes from the earlier study of alchemy, which is a set of practices that encompasses elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine. Alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word meaning “value”; it is commonly thought of as the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold. . Many believe that the Arabic word “alchemy” is derived from the word Chemi or Kimi, which is the ancient name of Egypt in Egyptian. The word was subsequently borrowed by the Greeks, and from the Greeks by the Arabs when they occupied Alexandria (Egypt) in the 7th century. The Arabs added the Arabic definite article “al” to the word, resulting in the word “ء ( “اal-kīmiyā).
... alkhemia. Today our version of the word, alchemy is used to describe everything that happened in chemistry between A.D. 300 and ... They wanted to turn one element into another. The ancient Arabic emperors employed many alchemists to try and change mercury, copper ... explosives and building materials are all made possible by “synthetic” chemistry. Chemistry is truly a powerful tool. It can create a better ...
Thus, an alchemist was called a ‘chemist’ in popular speech, and later the suffix “-ry” was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as “chemistry”. What is the importance of chemistry in our present everyday life? Chemistry is everywhere, and we use all the time in our daily lives, probably without knowing it. Here are some things that wouldn’t be possible without the field of chemistry. No plastic. That’s no plastic bags, no CDs or DVDs, no iPods, no plastic silverware or plastic cups and plates, no scotch tape, , no synthetic fabics (like nylon, fleece, rayon, and kevlar).
Most of your car is made of plastic too. Hello No Petrol……….. No driving fancy cars! No pharmaceuticals. Modern medicine wouldn’t exist. No aspirin, no pain killers! No water purification. Drinking water would make you sick half the time. Most of sewage treatment is done using chemistry. No synthetic fertilizers. Farming and food production wouldn’t be nearly as productive and starvation would be a massive problem. Insecticides are also made by chemists. No paint. No cosmetics. No processed foods. No air conditioning. No refrigeration. No soap and cleaning products. No photography. No televisions. No radios. No computeres. No glue. No batteries. No electricity in your house. There’s probably nothing you’ve done today that wasn’t made thanks to chemistry. You’d pretty much have to go back to living in a cave to get away from it! You know, you probably wouldn’t even be alive if it wasn’t for chemistry. Chemical reactions are happening every second in your body, keeping you alive .Chemistry doesn’t make our lives easier, it makes them possible so; as you go about your daily activities, remember to thank chemistry. As some body has correctly said, remember, “CHEMISTRY IS LIFE!”
... saturated fatty acids can be oxidized by the usual chemical oxidizing agents, for instance nitric acid, ozone and ... permanganate. However, these are not the concern for the food technologist. Autoxidation (atmospheric oxidation) under the mild processing and ... naturally or are synthesized artificially are used extensively as food antioxidants. The antioxidants usually are structurally similar that ...
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CHEMISTRY IN 2050………………………….
There is no doubt at all that the chemistry in 2050 would be very different from the 2011. Traditional & highly specialized academic chemistry will transform food, energy, health, transportation, communications and the quality of modern life.. The parts of chemistry which that will be on their peaks in 2050 may be as follows: • Agrochemistry • Natural Product • Astrochemistry Chemistry • Oenology • Cosmochemistry • Organometalic Chemistry • Atmospheric Chemistry • Petrochemistry • Chemical Engineering • Pharmacology • Chemical Biology • Photochemistry • Chemo-Informatics, • Phytochemistry • Electrochemistry • Polymer Chemistry • Environmental Chemistry • Radiochemistry • Femtochemistry • Solid-State Chemistry • Flavor Chemistry • Sonochemistry • Flow Chemistry • Supramolecular • Geochemistry Chemistry • Green Chemistry • Surface Chemistry • Histochemistry • Synthetic Chemistry • Hydrogenation Chemistry • Thermochemistry • Immunochemistry • Marine Chemistry • Materials Science • Mathematical Chemistry • Mechanochemistry • Medicinal Chemistry • Molecular Biology • Molecular Mechanics • Nanotechnology
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1. Bio-packaging a Biogradable alternative to traditional plastic in 2050 Plastic made from sugar and vegetable oil will no longer be a dream, but become a part in 2050 of the chemicals industry. Bio-packing a biodegradable alternative to traditional plastic will become the eco-trend in waste management. It is made from natural materials sourced from renewable raw materials such as corn or sugar cane. So, why is bio-packaging so useful for Our Future Planet .Plastic is harmful to people and the environment. Plastic leaches out chemicals called phthalates into the food, food products and water in plastic bottles. Phthalates, are oestrogen mimics and they increase the levels of oestrogen in humans and food chains and there is evidence that they cause cancer including breast cancers and lead to low fertility in men. So, replacing plastic would be good for people’s health. Bio-packaging is made from natural raw materials such as corn starch and sugar cane, both of which are consumed by humans and are not harmful to people’s health. Another great thing about bio-packaging is that it takes less energy to produce, has less carbon emissions and therefore helps reduce climate change.Bio-packing is also entirely compostable in industrial facilities and is therefore less harmful than the incineration of plastic waste which releases harmful chemicals into the atmosphere.
... , 2007. Print. Gooch, Jan W. Analysis and Deformulation of Polymeric Materials: Paints, Plastics, Adhesives, and Inks. New York: Plenum Press, 1997. Print ... industrial uses of adhesives and glues. Chemistry of adhesives and glues Adhesives consist of different chemical components which have specific functions inside ...
Furthermore, plastics take a long time to degrade and fill up landfill sites so biodegradable biopackaging is better for the environment and sustainable living. PLA, is a biodegradable alternative to traditional plastic. Traditional plastic is obtained from petroleum, where as PLA (Polyactide) is obtained from corn. Thus it is made from a 100% natural material sourced from renewable raw materials. Natureworks biopolymer shows a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. PLA production requires 20 to 50% less fossil energy than traditional plastic production. PLA trays are entirely compostable. ‘The benefits of this packaging are that it is made from renewable resources, it reduces the use of fossil fuels and carbon emissions Biopackaging has numerous uses for packaging food, water, cosmetics and medicines and is being used in many different countries around the world. It is better for people’s health, the environment and Our Future Planet. Bio-plastic technology is an important step on the road to a more sustainable society.
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2. Nanotechnology & Picotechnology using Graphene as material in
2050. Graphene is a transparent single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal, “honeycomb”, fashion This structure creates an immensely strong two dimensional material, so strong that it is two hundred times the strength of steel. Making graphene the strongest material ever tested. Graphene has some extremely interesting properties not yet observed in any other element or compound. The electron configuration in the hexagonal pattern requires three of each carbon atom’s four valence electrons to create the crystal lattice. This allows one electron to float freely released from chemical bonding. These free electrons create a sort of “sea” that which allows them to transfer current with almost no resistance. Interestingly this “sea” is what makes graphite so easy to separate and rub onto surfaces. The electrons act as a sort of barrier between each layer of graphene bonding weekly with the other layers. Due to use of graphene in 2050 Chemical analysis and chemical synthesis will be possible on microchips,.Atomic-scale circuitry,will millions of times smaller than today’s computer microprocessors,. Their tiny size would minimize power consumption, maximize speed, and permit nanoprocessors to be installed in a much broader range of everyday objects.
... to scrutinize the roughly 37,000 drug ads and promotional materials that drug companies submitted last year. The manpower ... technology. Agency scientists also evaluate applications for new human drugs and biologics, complex medical devices, food and color ... FDA also publishes rules that establish regulation of foods, drugs, biologics, cosmetics, radiation-emitting electronic products, and medical ...
Graphene will be incorporated into electronic devices on a Lilliputian scale due to its unusual electrical, magnetic, and other properties that it possess. In the field of electronics, graphene will replace silicon as a semiconductor and becoming the base material for integrated circuits, ultra capacitors, and future electronic devices., graphene’s high carrier mobility and low noise to be used as the channel in a field-effect transistor make of it an excellent material for integrated circuits. Moreover, graphene will be used for the conductive plates for ultra capacitors due to its high area-to-mass ratio. Graphene would also make efficient transparent conducting electrodes because of its high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In other words, it would be ideal for the popular touch-screens in phones and handheld computers, other liquid crystal displays, organic photovoltaic cells, and organic light emitting devices. On a larger scale, graphene’s most immediate applications lie in composite materials. Graphene will be very attractive for a variety of uses. For instance, gasoline tanks, plastic containers for keeping food fresh for weeks, and sports’ equipment.
Furthermore, graphene will be used to make lighter and more efficient aircraft and automobile parts, stronger wind turbines, and better medical implants. It will also serve as a transparent conductive coating for solar cells and displays. Spreading one sheet of graphene throughout polymers makes both strong and lightweight materials, and the electrical conductivity and resistance to higher temperatures in the composite material is even better than in polymers alone. As far as costs, graphene is much cheaper than its carbon nanotube counterpart, displaying similar properties. Furthermore, toxicity issues are lessened because graphene is only one nanometer thick and is less likely to penetrate lungs and cause cancer, unlike carbon nanotubes. Graphene is also an excellent material for solid-state gas detection. Its 2D structure, ability to store high amounts of hydrogen, and change in local electrical resistance makes molecule detection much easier. If a molecule becomes trapped on a graphene sheet that area’s resistance will change, and its location can be pinpointed. Gas pipes which travel long distances could make use of graphene to decrease loss in the transportation of these types of resources. A layer of graphene on the inside coating of a gas pipe would efficiently work as a sensor in this case. The same principle could be applied for detection of toxic or harmful gases. In the year 2050 Graphene will replace copper and silicon in electric devices, as well as being applied in various other industries.
... dependent on which structure the protein is in, and each structure helps shape the next structure. The primary structure determines the secondary structure, which in turn ... align in a vast number of ways in order to make specific proteins that control all cellular functions. The size, shape, charge ...
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3. Chemistry holds the Future of Fuels: Dihydrogen as a Fuel in 2050
Dihydrogen releases large quantities of heat on combustion .On a mass for mass basis dihydrogen can release more energy than petrol (about three times more).
Moreover, pollutants in combustion of dihydrogen will be less than petrol. The only pollutants will be the oxides of dinitrogen (due to the presence of dinitrogen as impurity with dihydrogen).
This, of course, can be minimised by injecting a small amount of water into the cylinder to lower the temperature so that the reaction between dinitrogen and dioxygen may not take place. However, the containers in which dihydrogen will be kept must be some special insulated tanks. Also, dihydrogen gas is converted into liquid state by cooling to 20K. Tanks of metal alloy like NaNi5, Ti–TiH2, Mg–MgH2 etc. will be in use for storage of dihydrogen in small quantities. In 2050 Hydrogen will alternative to all fuels.. Also we all know the limitations of corn and ethanol and the environmental problems they create. But with soaring oil prices, a new generation of entrepreneurs is looking at ways of unlocking the energy in big biological molecules using chemistry. I think that upto 2050 some of the technologies will be developed which will able to prepare :Diesel and Petrol from Ethanol to create, which could be used without any changes to existing car engines. ,Turning biomass into a form of oil.,Technology that uses acid to break down organic material for conversion to fuel. 4. Forensic chemistry: The abuse or illegal use of drugs is a worldwide social problem that is growing more serious rather than improving.
... will affect the bioavailability or metabolism of the drug. Also, pharmacodynamic interactions are more individualized, less predictable, and more ... . In a documented case, a patient taking a protein supplement displayed symptoms of lead poisoning. When analyzed, ... if pharmacists are to anticipate positive and negative drug-herb interactions. Gold Standard Multimedia. Clinical Pharmacology 2000. 1 ...
The increase in drug abuse is, at least partially, thought to be due to the development of information gathering facilities, that is, today, anybody can easily access drug information. More types of drugs that had never been used illegally as well as classic drugs such as opioids and amphetamines are being used. In doping, athletes use endogenous substances such as steroids and growth factors to conceal drug use. In addition, it is feared that terrorists may use highly toxic substances of biological origin. In 2050 forensic chemists will be able to analyze and determine a wide variety of substances that may be abused. The analysis of trace contaminants in drug preparation is expected to be one methodology for identifying the origin of drug supply. 5. Supramolecular chemistry: Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry beyond the molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. The forces responsible for the spatial organization may vary from weak (intermolecular forces, electrostatic or hydrogen bonding) to strong (covalent bonding), provided that the degree of electronic coupling between the molecular component remains small with respect to relevant energy parameters of the component.
While traditional chemistry focuses on the covalent bond, supramolecular chemistry examines the weaker and reversible noncovalent interactions between molecules. These forces include hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, pipi interactions and electrostatic effects. Important concepts that have been demonstrated by supramolecular chemistry include molecular self-assembly, folding, molecular recognition, host-guest chemistry, mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures, and dynamic covalent chemistryThe study of non-covalent interactions is crucial to understanding many biological processes from cell structure to vision that rely on these forces for structure and function. Biological systems are often the inspiration for supramolecular research. .Supramolecular chemistry and molecular
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self-assembly processes in particular have been applied to the development of new materials. Large structures can be readily accessed using bottom-up synthesis as they are composed of small molecules requiring fewer steps to synthesize. Thus most of the bottom-up approaches to nanotechnology are based on supramolecular chemistry A major application of supramolecular chemistry is the design and understanding of catalysts and catalysis. Noncovalent interactions are extremely important in catalysis, binding reactants into conformations suitable for reaction and lowering the transition state energy of reaction. Template-directed synthesis is a special case of supramolecular catalysis. Encapsulation systems such as micelles and dendrimers are also used in catalysis to create microenvironments suitable for reactions (or steps in reactions) to progress that is not possible to use on a macroscopic scale. Supramolecular chemistry is also important to the development of new pharmaceutical therapies by understanding the interactions at a drug binding site. The area of drug delivery will become advances as a result of supramolecular chemistry providing encapsulation and targeted release mechanisms.
In addition, supramolecular systems will disrupt protein-protein interactions that are important to cellular function.. 6.Robotics and combinatorial chemistry: will study and analyze the relations between protein structure and function based on the wealth of Studies of protein structures and functions Once DNA sequences have been deciphered, it becomes productive to ask about the structure and function of each of the proteins coded by the DNA. A next step, then, is to clone the DNA sequences, generate proteins, and set about the daunting task of crystallizing the proteins and determining their structures. This involves tens of thousands of protein structures every year. Preently doing this many structures using current methods is impossible, but up to 2050 is sure.. One such innovation involves robotic systems that quickly and precisely vary reagent concentrations, pH, and temperature in each of hundreds of samples, thereby increasing the chances that a crystal will grow in at least one sample In addition, extremely intense, highly focused x-rays make it possible to structure information from tiny crystals as small as 50 _ m long. To achieve the savings in quantity of protein that such small crystals make possible, a robotic system has to be able to handle volumes on the order of 100 nL, and an important parameter is controlling the size of droplets of solution over a range of different viscosities.
Robots are envisioned that can run 138,000 crystallization conditions per day, and a robot has already succeeded in crystallizing 16 different proteins. This opens tremendous opportunities not only for those interested in robotics and combinatorial chemistry, but also for those who will study and analyze the relations between protein structure and function based on the wealth of structural information that will soon become available. 7. Green chemistry will be the topmost chemistry branches in 2050 , which will make the environment green & also make chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The ‘principles of green chemistry’ will in unite all aspects of the molecular life cycle, from obtaining the feedstock and starting materials, through the synthetic and manufacturing process, to the end of commercial life and ultimate disposal of products. 8. Neurochemistry Will be able to study of neurochemicals; including transmitters, peptides, proteins, lipids, sugars, and nucleic acids; their interactions, and the roles they play in forming, maintaining, and modifying the nervous system.
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9.Biochemistry will be make the study of the chemicals, chemical reactions and chemical interactions that take place in living organisms more easier.
The way two individuals relate to each other is chemistry. The way two understand each other is chemistry. Up to year 2050 chemistry will become a religion. Unlike present religions the people following religion chemistry will love & understand each other So keep on making & trying Loving Chemistry with others…………………………..
Mahendra Kalra,K.V.No 1 Kota