Contemporary challenges facing the child population in Bulgaria related to health and safe future are troubling and complex. This necessitates the need to create an effective system of security and child care, which focuses on preventing cumulative effect of several risk factors.
Therefore, the growing importance for the society of so-called “economically active” children, whose number is constantly increasing, is directed to identify and address the multiple problems associated with the significant social phenomenon – child labour. In this connection we should emphasize and add it to the many characteristics of childhood, representing a risk, vulnerable period of human life. The specificity of these children as a demographic, age and biosocial group outlines ways and means to increase the visibility of the problem – child labour, its incidence and prevention. Their design in adequate sectored policies aimed to shape and promote healthy and safe living conditions for the rising generation.
Studying this risk part of the infant community, there are negative consequences of the early initiation of work related to their health, physical and mental development.
We pay particular attention to the risks and the reasons supporting the use of child labour. In this context, we put emphasis on the basic characteristics and factors on which depend the regulation of child labour. This requires building a preventive, comprehensive and coordinated approach to counteraction the spread of child labour. For this purpose, we offer a framework for policy and action restricting the entry of children in this risk category.
People nowadays are busy with their own lives by spending much time on their gadgets like tablets, iPads and laptops including the children. They are either doing their job or playing games because of habit on the gadgets and forgot the traditional games. It is agreed to say that children today prefer to play computer games to traditional games. For instance, children nowadays did not participate ...
The contemporary challenges facing the child population in the country related to health and safe future are troubling and complex. This necessitates the need to create an effective system of security and child care that focuses on preventing cumulative effect of several risk factors. Therefore, the growing importance for the society of the so-called “economically active” children, whose number is constantly growing, is directed to identify and address the multiple issues associated with social phenomena – child labour. In this regard we must emphasize and add to the many characteristics of childhood, representing a risk, vulnerable period of biological life.
The specificity of these children as demographic, age and biosocial group outlines the ways and the means of characterizing the extent of the problem – child labour, its spread and prevention measures.
Their design in adequate sector policies (eg dangerous child labour in construction, agriculture, transport, etc.) aims to promote health and safety conditions restricting professional risks.
Purpose of the study:
Therefore, this study is based and includes important requirements related to conditions of child labour. Leading importance in the development of policy and action to ensure health and safety is the optimization of working conditions and to provide adequate protection for working children. Health and safety at work is one of the most important aspects of social policy in the European Union.
Study of risk factors and reasons for using child labour;
Characteristic shape and dimensions of child labour;
Effects of early initiation of work;
To highlight the main contemporary challenges facing health of children.
Results and discussion
The right to health and safety is a fundamental constitutional rights of citizens in Bulgaria. Art. 275 of the Labor Code states: “The employer is obliged to provide safe and healthy working conditions so that risks to life and health of the employee to be removed, reduced or limited.”
Children are the flowers of heaven. They are the most beautiful and purest creation of God. They are innocent both inwardly and outwardly. No doubt, they are the beauty of this world. Early in the morning when the children put on different kinds of clothes and begin to go to schools for the sake of knowledge, we feel a specific kind of joy through their innocence. Introduction But there are ...
This is the starting point and having a key role in characterizing the safety and health hazard for the growing organism. Studying this risk part of the child’s community, there are negative consequences of early initiation of work-related health, physical and mental development.
Undoubtedly this is a priority tool for forming a systematic, integrated and coordinated approach to ensuring healthy development of a supportive work environment. Thus can delineate the space for defining and addressing a number of preventive practices to resolve the different risk situations.
For example, in a WHO study conducted in Europe is found that around one third of the diseases among children aged under 18 years can be attributed to unhealthy and dangerous working conditions and lives, leading to significant social and economic costs.
It is also found that trauma, accidents, poisoning and others account for about one sixth of disease and mortality in the pediatric population in Europe. The results of the study “Problems of Child Labour in terms of transformation in Bulgaria” (with the financial support of the International Labour Organization) show that at present from 856.022 children aged 7 to 18 years economically active are 7%. The method of recruitment of children complement the characteristics of child labour. In this respect it is found that about 90% of economically active children are working without a contract.
The distribution by sectors is mainly in trade and services – 56%, agriculture – 17% in transport and communications – 7%, in industry – 3%, in other industries – 17%.
Risk factors and causes:
Risk to safety when working with unsafe equipment, resulting in injuries and accidents;
Risk of health damage due to weightlifting over the established standards, bad regimes of work and rest;
Working in the hostile environment, mortality risks – work in establishments with gaming and serving alcohol;
Characteristic shape and dimensions:
Considerable differences exist between the many kinds of work children do. Some are difficult and demanding, others are more hazardous and even morally reprehensible. Children carry out a very wide range of tasks and activities when they work. Not all work done by children should be classified as child labour that is to be targeted for elimination. Children’s or adolescents’ participation in work ...
Worst forms of child labour are more often found in the domestic economy (agriculture and domestic work) and the informal economy (restaurants, construction, hotels and others.)
Forms of child labour are complex: socio-economic conditions (poverty and social exclusion), dropping out of education including vocational training (these children have limited opportunities for inclusion in the labour market);
Inadequate medical supervision on the implementation of activities threatening the health of children;
The main dimensions of child labour are: low cost (mostly depends on the will of the employer), low investment in safe working conditions, ineffective control, especially in seasonal or part-time work.
Major contemporary challenges:
Destabilization of the family environment (disharmony and dysfunction in the family as an institution);
Economic coercion (impoverishment of households with school-age children);
Not covering and dropping out of school children each year (about 25,000 children do not attend or drop out of education at an earlier stage);
Lack of professional skills and qualifications;
Lack of seniority and experience;
Employment in the informal economy;
Hours of work, if it exceeds the limits (Bulgarian legislation does not permit a longer duration of 35 hours per week for children 16 to 17 years old and then soft mode).
Effects of early initiation of work:
We observe a greater health risk to harmful factors in the current working environmen considering the increased sensitivity, decreased resistance due to to specific anatomical and physiological characteristics of child’ body. We found that about 2-3% of working children have health problems due performance of their work. From the perspective of children’s health the provision of “environment conducive to health” requires the establishment of healthy and safety co-working environment.
Child labour was important in factories. For reasons such as factory could pay them less than an adult for similar work, also, the children could fit their hands into small places to fix little things or work in ways adults couldn’t making it seem more beneficial. Although it seemed beneficial, it was important to stop child labour because it kept children out of school. This meant they didn’t get ...
The lower level and quality of education tends to increase the number of low-skilled labour force at the labour market. It is known that in a competitive market economy the level of education determines the young people place in the division of labour.
This requires to build a preventive approach to combat the spread of child labour. For this purpose we offer the following framework including key priority areas:
Development and implementation of programs to eradicate worst forms of child labour;
Improving awareness of children who are at risk to fall into severe forms of child labour;
Taking action for identification, removal and rehabilitation of such children;
Optimizing the list of professions that are heavy, harmful and dangerous for persons 15 to 18 years of age;
Systematic monitoring of children dropped out of the educational system;
Developing media strategies for the negative consequences of using child labour;
Improving the regulatory framework, strengthening control and sanctions for violations. Effective legislative and fiscal policy.
These modern guidelines for change and development require the following preventive measures to improve the conditions of child labor in terms of:
The configuration of the workplace;
In conclusion, we could indicate that to reduce the impact of unhealthy, harmful and dangerous working environment on the child’s body is necessary to overcome the fragmented, partial approach and to form a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach as well as an increased and sharing good practice at local and national level in the system “work environment – children’s health”.
We believe that this is the right way to protect children’s health through prevention of risk factors in the workplace.
In order to overcome the problems faced by young people in the labour market, it is necessary to take measures and actions that lead to the provision of safe and healthy working conditions. This multidimensionality means that the restriction of child labour is a prerequisite and guarantee for targeted and effective health and social security of the rising generation.
In the 1800’s children were forced to go to work in factories for little pay. The factories were in very bad conditions for children to work in. Most of the kids got asthma because the factories were so dusty. The children had to get into small gaps in the machines to fix them which was very dangerous and some of the children died because of it. A lot of the children didn’t get any sleep so they ...