PAULO AB DE MATOS
THE HIDDEN CONNECTIONS ESSAY
INTRODUCTION The book tries to bring what he calls the biological, social and cognitive life. For this purpose, the author works in depth each of these dimensions, breaking myths and presenting the latest scientific theories and discoveries in every branch. When approaching such dimensions, the author creates an entanglement between each dimension, a network of connections that is not separated in any way and lives constantly together. For the author, all aspects of life are interconnected, not only biological but also the social and cognitive. All of them act and react together, so that we can only understand one, when we fully understand all of them. The Fritjof Capra formulations on the new understanding of life are linked on a congenital form of intellectual and philosophical tradition of systems theory. The philosophical tradition, that defends the idea that the ecology does not separate humans from nature, and recognize the intrinsic value of all living beings. Capra’s research in this book is focused mainly on the processes and patterns of organization of living systems, as Capra refers “… the hidden connections between phenomena …” (page 9).
Applying a systems approach to the social domain, the central theme that Capra develops in hidden connections, is the paradigm shift, or rather, a fundamental shift in worldview that is occurring in science and society, and developing a new vision of reality and social consequences of these cultural changes. As Capra refers “… creates a new vision of reality whose center is occupied by life itself …” (page 9).
2.0 Managers?? responsibility in the office and in society. 3.0 Employees?? responsibility in the office and in society. 5.0 Who is affected and to what degree. ------------------------------------------------------- Management is the process of planning, organizing and staffing, directing and controlling activities in an organization in a systematic way in order to achieve a specific goal. From ...
In order to present a theoretical and conceptual framework to integrate the biological, cognitive and social dimensions of life, Capra offers a unified view of society and develops a coherent and systematic way of looking at some of the most critical issues of our time. Capra argues in his book, ecological literacy, the systemic and unified conception where the basic pattern of organization is the network of life, and that the living systems should be analyzed under four interrelated perspectives: the shape, the form, the process and the meaning. To do so, Capra makes use of concepts of modern mathematics, especially the concept of nonlinear dynamics, or the complexity theory. In the first part of the book Capra raises the question: “… to what extent a human organization can be considered a living system?” (page 7).
In order to contribute conceptually to this question, Capra presents a theoretical framework that addresses the nature of life, respectively, the nature of mind and consciousness and the nature of social reality.
In the last chapter the author presents the most innovative ideas for the path in search for humanity ecology. After he briefly reporting the achievements of his earlier works, the author considers himself a believer in the philosophical school of “deep ecology”, which “does not separate humans from nature and recognize the intrinsic value of all living beings.” (page 9).
For the author, “the principles on which there will be raised our future social institutions, must be consistent with the principles of organization that nature has evolved to sustain the web of life. For this, it is essential to develop a unified conceptual framework for understanding the material and social structures” (page 11).
Hidden Connections – Science for Sustainable Living The Nature of Life There is no life without cells (Capra, Hidden Connections, 2002).
Cells can be simple or complex, and the simplicity of a cell can be one of two types. The internal simplicity, which is related to the biochemistry of the organism internal environment. The ecological simplicity which is related to the organism in relation to the demands made to the external environment (page 13).
Decision Support Systems Used in Network Hardware How does data pass through the internet? If you said decision support systems, you are correct. In an indecisive world, network hardware devices uses decision support systems (DSS) to efficiently and effectively route data, in a local area network, with the least amount of errors and inconsistencies. Decision support systems are the brains behind ...
This notion of ecological simplicity is important so there is the need to define with precision the non-linear theory. Everything depends on everything, so that specialization should always be tempered with the relationship between the disciplines and fields of study. The organisms are always included as a function of the concept of feeding web, as the bodies are always networks of cells, organs and organ systems. Systems theory at this point contributed to the understanding that “the network pattern is common to all forms of life. Wherever there is life, there are networks” (page 18).
Life, therefore, must be understood as the entire bounded metabolic network. At this point, the author presents what would be one of the main insights of the new understanding of life: “biological functions are not simply determined by a genetic blueprint, but are properties that arise spontaneously from the entire epigenetic network” (page 20).
The new cell, created by the reproduction of other cells, is never produced exclusively by the “bare, naked DNA”, but is an extension of the whole autopoietic network. This is because the living systems are not closed systems. They are closed only as regards the internal organization. But they are open in terms of material and energy and, therefore, like a car that changes its performance in accordance with good or poor gasoline quality, the cell and its descendants also vary widely according to material and energy they receive.
And, according to the theory of dissipative structures, “when the flow of energy increases, the system can reach a point of instability, called the bifurcation point, which has the possibility to derive to an entirely new state, which can rise to new structures and new forms of order” (page 22).
The development of life was due to three major evolutionary pathways. The first was the random genetic mutations. The second was the recombination of DNA in which the bacteria’s freely exchange other hereditary characteristics between them, on an incredible rate. Many bacteria even replace up to 15% of all the genetic material every days. Finally, the symbiogenesis that, as a theory, part of the symbiosis, which is the association tendency of different organisms, to suggest that this symbiosis for long periods can form new forms of life. Several living plants and animals contain elements that support these three evolutionary paths (Capra, 45-47).
Public phone lines and a modem are a typical communication conduit to connect to a company network. Although wireless technology will definitely change our options for connecting to a network from a remote location in the next few years, a modem is still the connection device most commonly used. To allow this type of remote access, Remote Access Services must be set up. Setting up remote access is ...
Mind and coincidence In the systems view of life, the decisive step was to abandon the Cartesian view of mind to realize that the mind and consciousness are “processes”. In 1960 arose as a result, the term “mental process”. In the Santiago theory of cognition, seeks to identify the cognition, that is, the process of knowledge, with life, with the process of living. For its major representatives (Maturana and Varela), cognition is what guarantees the self-generation and self-perpetuation of living species, even if cognition is given only to the microcellular level and that the living being does not have brain or nervous system: interactions of an organism live with its environment are cognitive interactions. The theory of cognition is connected to autopoiesis, that is, self-generation of living networks. The living system is connected structurally to their environment, through recurrent interactions. These interactions change with each new sensory stimulus, which then becomes dependent on the organisms. The environment, therefore, only triggers the changes, but does not specify or directs them (Capra, 41).
This phenomenon is named of “structural coupling”. The behavior of the organism is thus determined by the structure of the organism itself, and not only or primarily, as previously thought, by the external structures. The outside structures influence, yes, but the structure, from the autopoiesis, is determined by itself. The mind, in the Santiago theory, is not a thinking thing, but a process of cognition identified with the process of living (page 44).
The brain is only the main frame on which this process occurs, without even being the single structure, since the whole organism is a part of the cognitive process.
Networking and Telecommunications Team B Assignment Terry Anderson Mary James Russell Thee NTC 360/ Network and Telecommunication Concepts Table of Contents Introduction Technology Involved Telephone System Network SetupCostSampling of Companies Possible Future Trends Global Implications Conclusion Introduction We have been hired to design a small network for a company that will utilize the newest ...
According to Capra, “the Santiago theory of cognition is the first scientific theory to overcome the Cartesian split between mind and matter, and therefore will have the most momentous consequences” (page 44).
Cognition is a much broader phenomenon than consciousness. Consciousness requires a higher degree of complexity, with higher brain and superior nervous system. There are two degrees in consciousness: primary consciousness, which arises from the basic experience of perception, feeling and emotion; and the reflective consciousness (or higher), which requires a sense of himself, that is, self- consciousness, and that is only experienced by some monkeys and the man itself, as it requires a higher degree of cognitive abstraction (page 45-46).
According to the author, the experience can only be explained from the nonlinear dynamics of complex living networks, combined with biochemistry and the laws of physics. Capra also highlights the neurophenomenology, which method is the “disciplined examination of subjective experience” (page 49)with the analysis of patterns and corresponding neural processes. For neurophenomenology, the physiology of the brain and conscious experience should be treated as two interdependent and equally important domains of research. It would be a “vision from the inside.” Phenomenology (discipline of philosophy) is a key feature of phenomenological reduction, which brings the analysis to a situation of suspension of formulating judgments about what is perceived. But “human consciousness is not just a biological phenomenon but also a social phenomenon. Communication, for instance, “there is a transmission of information, but rather a coordination of behavior between living organisms through a mutual structural coupling” (page 58).
The phenomenon of language “does not occur in the brain, but in a continuous flow of coordination of behavior.” (page 59).
“In a conversation between two human beings, the concepts and ideas, the emotions and body movements become intimately linked in a complex choreography of coordinated behavior” (page 59).
As regards the spiritual dimension of consciousness, Capra said, without explaining in detail that “the spirit – the breath of life – is what we have in common with all living beings. It is what feeds us and keeps us alive” (page 73).
The Wireless Sensor Network for Home-Care System Using ZigBee Mao-Cheng Huang, Jyun-Ciang Huang, Jing-Cyun You, Gwo-Jia Jong Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, 807 Taiwan, ROC E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Abstract In this paper, we presented the wireless sensor networks (WSN) to observe the human physiological ...
The statement, too strong, is not justified. For Capra, “the notion of spirituality is consistent with the notion of embodied mind that is being developed by cognitive science. Spiritual experience, is an experience that the mind and body are living in a unit” (page 74).
Also in this chapter, Capra says that “we are part of the universe, we belong to the universe and on universe are at home; and the perception of this belonging, this be a part of, can give a deeper meaning to our lives” (page 74).
The social reality From the point of view of the shape, the living systems are arranged in a self-generating network. From the point of view of material, the living structure is dissipative, that is, which are kept far from equilibrium. From the point of view of process, the living systems are cognitive, in which the cognition is closely related to autopoiesis. Culture is created and sustained by a communications network in which the meaning is generated. This meaning is the result of an interpretation and we interpret itself in a “double hermeneutic” (page 81).
For Habermas, the social system is connected to the way in which social structures constrain the actions of individuals; is bound, therefore, to issues of power and, specifically, the class relations that involve production. The world of life, on the other hand, is linked to questions of meaning and communication. Habermas afirma que “Social scientists should critically evaluate the various traditions and must identify the ideological distortions and discover how they connect to the power relations. Emancipation happens whenever people are able to overcome certain restrictions of the past, caused by distortions of communication” (page 83-84).
Social life should also be understood by network standards, since life is endowed with a fundamental unit, which ensured the evolution over billions of years while using the same standards. As life evolves, these patterns become increasingly elaborate, but they do not cease to be variations over the same theme. “[…] social networks are first of all communication networks involving symbolic language, cultural boundaries, power relations and so on” (page 85).
Introduction Proper ethical behavior is a significant part of conducting business. Organizations must therefore find ways to incorporate ethical considerations into their strategic plan. Firms need to practice self governance and obey existing laws if they are to ensure their survival and the well-being of the society in which they exist. The decisions made by an organization affect society as a ...
Luhmann believes that social systems use communication as the central element of social networks. The elements of social systems are produced and reproduced communications. The communications end up creating a “common system of beliefs, explanations and values” (page 86), which is continuously supported by new communications. From these contexts and meanings, each individual acquires its own identity in the social network, until they create an external boundary (like the cell membrane), maintained and continually renegotiated by the network communications. “The social limits are not necessarily physical limits, but limits made of requirements and meanings” (page 91).
For this reason, the internet, the “for excellence” communication tool revolutionizes the actual social systems; it’s a source of production and reproduction of communication, faster and more intense than those experienced so far. Through it we create a common system of beliefs, explanations and values that are eventually adopted in the social network, even without physical contact between its members, a network that also has its outer limits (those who have no access to internet, those with limited access, which operate in some communities, etc.).
For Galbraith, there are three kinds of power, according to the means by which power is exercised: the coercive power or coercive submission warrants the imposition of effective sanctions or threatened, the countervailing power, by offering incentives or rewards, the power conditioning, by changing beliefs through persuasion or education. “The art of politics is finding the right measure of each of these three types of power in order to resolve conflicts and promote the balance between the opposing interests” (page 92).
For the same author, “the individuals and groups seek power to defend their own interests and to impose on others their own personal values, religious or social. “A second exploration stage is reached when the power is sought only for himself. The power is then a source of great emotional and material rewards, such as “a standing ovation, fanfares and military honors, offices with bathroom, limousines, jets and cars parades” (page 93).
The life and leadership in human Organizations Executives today are suffering from an illness that requires them more work and dedication. The cause of this disease “seems to be the enormous complexity that has become one of the predominant features of the today´s industrial society” (page 99).
The complex industrial systems are the main force of destruction of the planetary environment, and in long term, the main threat to the humanity survival. The statement in the book, contains no further explanation, there is neither argument nor contrast to other theories, for example, that global warming is due to natural causes. For the author, the conception of organizations as living systems (nonlinear complex networks), can give new insights into the complexity of the business environment and help deal with problems arising from it. The author refers to the reasoning starting from the classic metaphors over the organizations (machine, organism, brain, system of government, culture).
He reminds attention mainly to the metaphor of organization as machine and as a living being. Capra quotes Peter Senge, the administration theorist, which refers that the only way to understand organizations is considering them as living beings.
For this, one must abandon the idea that companies are created and possessed by people who are outside the system, which reflects the mechanistic view. For him, when we abandons this idea and try to understand the organization as a living being, the “question of ownership” becomes problematic, because the employees and even business owners cannot be considered “outside” the company, but within it, within this organism. The company’s vision as a living being, means acknowledging that the company is able to regenerate itself, to change, to evolve naturally (page 105).
Arie de Geus, a former executive at Shell, analyzed 27 companies and found that they all had similar characteristics and behaviors of the living entities. Firstly, a strong sense of community and collective identity, in which all members know they will be supported in their efforts to achieve they´re goals. In addition, all companies had an opening to the external environment, tolerance to new ideas and people and a great capacity to learn and adapt to new circumstances (page 107).
It should change the priority, leaving the “managing companies to optimize the capital”, to “managing companies to optimize people” (page 106).
It is interesting to think on this “network society” as an evolution of the motto “liberty, equality and fraternity,” and understand the “network society” as the “brotherhood” of the French motto. Of course, the scope of each objective of the lemma is not linear or even completely feasible. But until now we have just seen efforts to freed companies. Castells suggests, that the computer revolution may have created a network society, which is not limited to computer networks, but also to social networks that can bring a kind of social “brotherhood”, or perhaps a step further in its direction. Or not? For Arie de Geus, a strong feeling among employees of a company belonging to the organization identify themselves with their achievements, where exists a sense of community which is essential for the survival of businesses in today’s turbulent economic environment (page 106).
Is the same true for highly competitive cultures, where often the feeling of “community” is not so big? The more the company managers know the processes of self-generating networks, the more effective will be they´re efforts in the organizational communities. They will have to get used to give “significant impulses” rather than “precise instructions” since is a well-known fact that intelligent and attentive people almost never run to the letter the instructions they receive “people always respond with new versions of the instructions received” (page 113).
“The strict obedience can only be achieved at the expense of the vitality of the people” (p. 113).
In a flash of romance, Capra concludes that the change of “domination to partnership” requires the change of coercive power (sanctions) and countervailing power, for conditioning power, that “through persuasion and education, seeks to make significant instructions given ” (page 114).
The knowledge generated in organizations should also be understood as networks so as to broaden the knowledge created by individuals, making it part of the organizations network of knowledge. “Although the creation of knowledge is an individual process, their amplification and expansion are social processes that occur between individuals” (page 115).
Thus, one can speak of organizational learning, a social phenomenon in which tacit knowledge, which is based on explicit knowledge (documents, language), is generated collectively. About leadership in organizations, Capra confronts the traditional leader with the “leader of networks” (Capra does not use any name for this second type).
In the first case, the leader is only one person capable of hold in mind the company’s vision, and formulates it clearly and communicate it with passion and charisma. The action of the leader also expresses values that serve as the standard for lead. The second type of leader facilitates the emergence of what´s new, creating conditions rather than giving instructions. Uses his authority to empower, strengthen and empower others. Globalization is recognized as “a world shaped by new technologies, new social structures for a new economy and a new culture” (page 129).
Capra cites Castells, who believes that “the observation, analysis and theorizing are one of the means we have to build a different and better world” (page 130).
Castells believes in Computers Revolution as a new form of organization of human activity in business, politics, the media and the nongovernmental organizations. For him, the crisis that triggered the perestroika and the eventual dissolution of the USSR was the inability of the Soviet Union political and economic system in understanding the transition to the computer paradigm that was spreading to the rest of the world. For Capra, the rise of globalization occurred through a process characteristic of all human organizations: the set of actions and reactions between the structures designed and emergent structures. The rise required, as one of its essential elements, the new computer and communication technologies, with almost immediate transfer of funds between various segments of the economy and the countries of the globe, and allowed the complexity arising from deregulation and the new financial ingenuity. This new capitalism is characterized then by the global economic activities, the productivity through innovation, the generation of knowledge and information processing and is structured primarily on volume of networks of financial flows Emerging markets have great potential for economic growth and therefore become prime targets of the players of the “global casino” that make huge investments in emerging markets, but withdraw as quickly and at the slightest sign of weakening of the economy. Moreover, governments have no power or economic policy to curb the accelerated flow of capital, and end up having to endure the social problems resulting from this flow of capital.
Capra insists on the theory, globalization compared to living organisms “continually unstable” which, he says, “disappear because of natural selection” (page 139).
The whole problem is the lack of regulation of these flows that end up being too many spoilers. “What is at stake is too valuable to the speculative capital and currency fluctuations determine the fate of the real economy” (Robert Kuttner, page 140).
The global market is the true automaton of modern times. It was not the machines that replaced people, but the electronic system of financial transactions, which defines where, how and when is the best time to invest. Thus, for example, “Most corporate mergers do not increase efficiency or corporate profits, but cause rapid and dramatic structural changes to which people are totally unprepared” (page 141).
The money, in turn, became almost completely independent of production and services and exists, especially in the virtual reality of electronic networks. “Capital is global, whereas the work, by rule, is local” (page 141).
Capital and labor, thus occupying the time and space increasingly different. It obeys the rules of electronic communications; the work complies with the biological time of human beings. For Capra, in the economy where the information processing, innovation and knowledge creation are the main sources of productivity, trained workers are highly valued. According to Capra, “companies prefer to maintain a long and secure relationship with its key employees to ensure their loyalty and ensure that their tacit knowledge is transmitted to the organization” (page 142).
As a result of that intrinsic money value, begins an even more perverse social exclusion. “Districts, regions and even entire countries become irrelevant from an economic standpoint” (page 143).
The power and politics of globalization are also changing. The national state has no more authority and legitimacy, as the financial capital has to move freely between states. The official policy, according to Castells, is eventually becoming the most important on regional and local levels. For him, a new decentralization of power will occur, creating the “network state.” In the network state, all members are interdependent, “when you take the political decisions, one must take into account the effects they have on all members of the state, even the smallest, as they necessarily affect the entire network “(page 150).
Rulers who are elected with, for example, free transport for patients from one city to another, do not bother to create lines of transport, because they will lose the power on every four years with this free transportation. For Capra, “there is one crucial difference between the nature of ecological networks and business networks of human society. In an ecosystem, no being is excluded from the network. All species, even the smallest contribute to the sustainability of the whole network. In the human world of wealth and power, large segments of the population are excluded from global networks and become insignificant from an economic standpoint “(page 151).
The culture also suffers intense transformation in globalization. The environment, the form, has more value than the message itself. “The most successful politicians are no longer those with the most popular platforms, but those who ‘look good’ on television and know how to manipulate the symbols and cultural codes” (page 155).
The biotechnology in its turning point Genetic determinism is no longer fully accepted among biologists. There is no genetic programming. Not even perhaps the current concept of the gene corresponds to the current study developments in this area. “The current proliferation of complete genome sequences is forcing life sciences research to take on the theme of integration and system behavior (cell elements)” (page 162).
This, according to Capra, is a change from “the reductionist thinking to systems thinking” (page 162).
“The new discoveries in genetics will force biologists to adopt a radically different conception: that mutations are generated and controlled by an active network of epigenetic cell and that evolution is an essential element of self-organization of living organisms” (page 165).
In fact, according to experts, the development and organization depends on mutations that are not always accidental. “Mutations are just one of three paths of evolutionary changing, the other two are the exchange of genes between bacteria and symbiogenesis – the creation of new life forms through the fusion of different species” (page 166).
The evolution, ultimately, is a cognitive process, in which the body “knows” the environment and adapts to it according to the needs that arise. That central dogma of genetics, of genetic determinism, is also being destroyed to the extent that one realizes that the DNA is an essential part of the epigenetic network, but is not the only causal agent of biological forms and functions. The biological processes involving genes are all regulated by the cellular network in which the genome is inserted. “This network is highly nonlinear and contains multiple feedback rings so that patterns of gene activity change continuously in the face of changing circumstances” (page 171).
For this reason “gene expression depends on the genetic and cellular environment (epigenetics of the entire network) and can change when genes are placed in a new environment” (page 176).
These findings, however, are not disclosed by the companies of genetics. From an economic standpoint, it is more profitable to disclose that the absolute genes are responsible for diseases, including psychiatric, than accept the new genetics. With the perpetuation of the dogma of genetics the industry is able to sell medicines’ “fix” the defective genes, which, is contradictory with the new scientifically achievements in genetics. 11
The ethical problems of biology and cloning are also blurred. “Identical twins are more similar to each other, from the genetic point of view, than a cloned organism is similar to the donor of their genes, and yet their personalities and life stories are often quite different” (page 179).
The cloned animals have only the donor nucleus, but the rest of the genetic material, including genes that fall outside of the enucleated cell nucleus (that one from where the original nucleus was removed to deploy the donor nucleus).
Changing the Game For Capra, “the current form of economic globalization has been consciously designed and can be modified” (page 209).
The lnternational Forum on Globalization has published a summary of the alternatives to economic globalization: governments must stop serving large companies and must pass to serve people and communities, rules must be created and also subsidies that favor localities and follow the subsidiarity principle “whenever the power can have its headquarters at local level, this is where it must have its headquarters” (page 220-221), respect for cultural diversity and integrity, ensure self-sufficient food production; respect of social rights, labor and human rights The definition of sustainability requires ecological literacy, which is “the understanding of the principles of organization common to all living systems, ecosystems have developed to sustain the web of life. The principles are:
Networks – all living systems communicate and share resources in the network (page 227); Cycles – all living organisms consume materials and energy and produce waste, which should serve as food for other species (page 227-228); Solar energy – Solar energy drives all ecological cycles (page 228); Alliances – the exchange of energy and resources are always cooperative (page 228); Diversity – the greater the diversity of an ecosystem, the greater its strength and resilience (page 228); Dynamic equilibrium – ecosystems are flexible networks, the networks derived from cycles, all system variables fluctuate around its optimum value (page 228); The principle of ecological cycles requires that all products and materials manufactured by industry, including byproducts, are useful at some point to “nurture something else.” This will require the collation of the environmental industry, where one can make use of the waste and byproducts from others industrial activities for their own.
As living standards and rules are constant and repetitive, not only within the lifetime of a single person, but for all generations that can meet each other, which means, the contact between different human groups causes the combination and synthesis of different value systems. According to Capra, these values undergo to a process of construction and are carriers of a social objectivity, but since are not natural laws, they can change. And that’s the hope of all actual revolutionary propositions. Change of values which exalt the material consumption, the values that regulate the global financial system and trigger a series of negative consequences. As Capra supports this idea by stating “… the first step in the effort to construct new values and a sustainable society, is the ecological literacy, that is, understanding the organization principles common to all living systems that ecosystems develop to sustain the web of life…(page 227)”.
Conclusion In summary, it is evident that once our society and our leaders truly embrace a systems view of life, we will begin to forge ahead and create a world that has a future. We will learn from nature rather than always looking for a way to control it. We know most of the problems, and we probably know most of the answers for those problems, including the application of different technologies and the creation of new and more appropriate international institutions. The difficulty is how to get from here to there. Radical changes may already be on its way, but it remains mostly on the fringes. We still measure things wrongly, and here economists have a big responsibility. This book, in its entirety, is an eye opener to each and everyone of us but more so, the political and business corporate leaders, NGO’s and all change advocates of sustainable development because it provides an opportunity to learn and understand the issues surrounding systematic change in organizations. Capra has clearly articulated an accessible and fundamental conceptual theory of human organizations that has immediate relevance at all organizational levels. In his concluding chapter ‘changing the game’ Capra outlines the ecocide that is being inflicted on the planet and makes suggestions of sustainable practices such as ecolitery, solar power, hyper cars, conversion to zero waste hydrogen economy and a general shift in tax regimes by promoting employment and taxes on non-sustainable practices. He has also raised a number of key challenges for the new century to social scientists, natural scientists and everyone else saying that we need to build ecologically sustainable communities, designed in such a way that their technologies and social systems do not interfere with natures inherent ability to sustain life. 13
Unfortunately we may need a catastrophe or two to bring about the fundamental changes that are required. So it’s our obligation and our leaders to look at life in a different direction hence create a world that has a future. In most cases, it’s always nature that will teach us the way of life and hence instead of treating life as a commodity, we have to treat it as a concept of our existence. If we want to save the world for our children, we really have to act now before it gets too late. Preventing our world from getting destroyed by our activities is a better alternative than trying to salvage the remaining patches after destroying. This is why Capra suggested the ecological alternative, repairing the world by us can be difficult, but the good thing is that our world has natural abilities to restore itself if given a chance of restoration.
References 1. Capra, Fritjof (2002).
The Hidden Connections – A Science for Sustainable Living. Translation from Cipolla, Marcelo Brandão. EDITORA CULTRIX, São Paulo, Brazil. 2. Maturana, Humberto R. & Varela, Francisco J, (1980).
Autopoiesis and Cognition. The Realization of the Living. Dordrecht: Reidel. 3. Descartes, Rene (1644).
The Principles of Philosophy. 4. Atlantic International University Video Conference.