“The Justification of the Church: Religion used to uphold social justifications”
The Middle Ages of Europe are generally considered to be from 5th century AD to 16th century AD, lasting roughly a millennium, commonly dated for the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the beginning of the Early Modern Period. In this millennium, many important events have changed Europe, such as the humanism rise of the Renaissance and the Protestant reformations, and the aftereffects of those.
The fall of the Roman Empire caused the loss of major cultural achievements, from science to math to the arts. However, this slowly changed as the Italian Renaissance was restored. Many of the arts lost from the Roman Empire were restored, and philosophical thinking was somewhat restored. These philosophical thinkings included in how humanity should live, the role of the government and how it should act, abstract art and thinking, and scientific achievements.
The Catholic Church has always been a major influence on all aspects of the peasants’ lives, rising forward from the chaos that ruled since the Roman Empire fell. They gave people hope in a better life, allowing the Church to gain authority and power. Dante Alighieri wrote a book that gave artistry and ideas on Hell, which the church used to gain power among the people.
Various leaders during this time have credited and helped the church, such as Charlemagne. Charlemagne has allowed for the Carolingian Renaissance to come. His acts have often helped in the revival of the arts and sciences, and in the empowerment of the Church.
arts were flourishing, while the city-states in Italy fought bloody battles with each other and within themselves. Bribery and murder were not uncommon tools for men to use when they wanted power. Meanwhile those same rulers patronized the arts a great deal and they would commission the best artistic minds of the time to build, design and paint their palaces and churches and later on their own ...
Many people, though have rebelled against the church. Martin Luther, a German monk, has found flaw with the Catholic Church, with such practices as indulgences, where pardons are bought from the Church. With his writing, The 95 Theses, he went against the church, trying to reform it. Escaping the prosecution of the Church, he used the new invention, the printing press, Luther was able to spread his ideals, sparking the Protestant Reformation.
The Protestant Reformation had many changes and reforms over the years. John Calvin allowed for many branches of the Reformation to pass, referred to as Calvinism and various branches such as Huguenots and Puritans. King Henry VIII was also a major factor. Because he wanted to divorce his wife, and the refusal of the Church to allow this, King Henry branched off and created the Anglican Church, allowing the Christian Reformation to reach most of England.
As these religions slowly branched and grew from Catholicism, the Catholic Church grew apprehensive. To keep their religion strong, the Catholic Church started campaigns to keep Catholicism strong. The Council of Trent was a committee that supported Catholicism and rejected the Reformation. The Index of Forbidden Books was a list of banned church books. People who broke these rules were called heretics, and were mightily prosecuted, with such things as executions and stake burnings. The Inquisition, a group given authority by the Pope, executed people, sometimes entire villages. This movement to reduce the influence of the Protestant Reformation was called the Counter Reformation.
Major changes have occurred as the years passed. At first, the Catholic Church was more a political, administrative, and commercial power than of a religious stature. Monasteries created in the Church’s name were not religious as a place of rest, learning, and protection, holding literature and teaching the people crafts and trades. The political government, usually monarchs at the time, often relied on the insights of the Church to guide their decisions. Excommunication was a suitable threat to people.
Strategic Change in Government Based on Organization Hierarchy University of Texas at Permian Basin March 22, 2005 The literature supports the position that there should be a relationship between the structure and organization change. This study was undertaken to determine how different organization roles, hierarchy, and sizes affect planned strategic change. A survey instrument was administered ...
As it was more a political and administrative power, the church was often corrupted, with such things as simony, the selling of church positions, to indulgences. It is said that one Pope was even more of a businessman than a pontiff. This existence of this kind of Church did not bode well, as the people matured, as society depended more on religious faith as the times left the dark ages. However, as the times passed, and the religious needs grew, the church turned more and more to the religious side. Religious orders were found to protect the religious beliefs of the Church, such as the Templar Knights and the Jesuits.
Religion has long played a major role in the governing of humanity, and as it has changed much over time, so has its governing of the people. Serving the needs of the time, the Church was a major political influence. And as the times changed, the Church changed with it. When the people felt that the current Church did not offer the spiritual guidance they needed, they thus branched off into the various other sects of religions. This growth of humanism, and thus religious thinking, was catalyzed by the existence of the various Renaissances.
However, many things do continue to stay the same. The Church has always remained a religious authority, more or less. As the government needs a spiritual representative, so did they turn to the Church. As the Church changed, so did the government. Influence and change were highly based on each other, sometimes causing various historical events such as how King Henry VIII split from the church and created another sect, introducing the country to an entirely new society and ways of life.
Always, religion will play a huge role in the existence in human life. Even as the Counter Reformation slowly pacified, governments changed as an aftereffects. Wars spread, the government using their beliefs to justify their debates. Because of these Counter Reforms, the political government’s power grew, even as the Papal power diminished. However, the world matures, both mentally and spiritually. Religion will continue to keep hold of its roots, while ever changing. As the religious debates and wars settled, people began to focus more on science, the arts, people began to focus on the education of people, the study oh philosophy, and the look to the future where both the changes of the social beliefs and the continuities of religion come hand in hand.
... Grace was a reaction against the religious changes”. Everything about the rising was to do with religion, the banners that the rebels carried ... resistance to the amicable grant had stopped the government, but the English people were now weary and didn’t hold complete support ... to taxes, bad harvest, the introduction of protestant methods in church and the dissolution of the monasteries and the dislike ...