Masters in Public Administration
PA 210 local government Administrations
Claro L. Lagman
LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES
* Is simply a government of the affairs of countries, town, etc… by locally elected political bodies.
* An administrative body for a small geographical area, such as city, town, country or state.
* A kind of administration and politics at the below national government e.g. country and borough councils.
* LG are administrative offices that are smaller than a state.
* The term is used to contrast with offices of nation and state level which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government.
TIMELINE OF PHILIPPINE LOCAL GOVERNMENT:
About 25,000 B.C. | The ancestors of the Philippines’ aboriginal inhabitants—the Negritos or Aeta—come from the Asian mainland, crossing shallow seas and land bridges. (Archaeological evidence suggests that the Philippines may have been inhabited many thousands of years before then, but that can’t be stated with certainty. The oldest human fossil found so far is 22,000 years old.) |
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About 3000 B.C. | New inhabitants come from Indonesia. This is repeated around 1000 B.C. |
About 200 B.C. | The first of several waves of Malayan settlers arrives from South China. |
1300s A.D. | Extensive trade is being conducted with India, Indonesia, China, and Japan. Arab traders from Indonesia introduce Islam to the Filipinos. |
1521 | Ferdinand Magellan explores the islands now known as the Philippines |
1542 | Spanish military party claims islands for Spain; names them “Philippines” after Prince Philip, later King Philip II of Spain; Philippines becomes part of Spanish Empire |
1899 | Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War, cedes Philippines to U.S.Filipinos declare their independence; Emilio Aguinaldo leads guerrilla war against U.S. |
1916 | U.S. government passes Jones Law establishing elected Filipino legislature with house and senate |
1935 | Filipino people approve constitution creating Commonwealth of the Philippines with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president |
1941 | Japanese invade Philippines, and defeat Gen. Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and Corregidor; Quezon establishes government in exile |
1945 | MacArthur liberates Manila; Osmeña establishes government |
1946 | Philippines becomes independent nation; Manuel Roxas y Acuña elected first president |
1965 | Ferdinand E. Marcos becomes president. |
1972 | Marcos establishes martial law. Ministry of Local Government was instituted to invigorate provincial, municipal, and barangay governments. But, Marcos’s real purpose was to establish lines of authority that bypassed provincial governments and ran straight to Malacañang. All local officials were beholden to Marcos, who could appoint or remove any provincial governor or town mayor. Those administrators who delivered the votes Marcos asked for were rewarded with community development funds to spend any way they liked. |
1979 | In 1979, Batas Pambansa No. 20 created the Regional Autonomous Government in Western and Central Mindanao regions. |
1983 | Opposition leader Benigno S. Aquino returns from exile, is slain on arrival at Manila Airport; Benigno’s widow Corazon Aguino leads “People Power” protest movement. |
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1987 | July 15, 1987 – President Corazon C. Aquino signed Executive Order 220 creating the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) composed of the provinces of Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao (still one province then), MountainProvince and the City of Baguio. Baguio City has been designated as seat of regional government . |
1988 | The Aquino government decided to replace all the local officials who had served Marcos. Corazon Aquino delegated this task to her political ally, Aquilino Pimentel. Pimentel named officers in charge of local governments all across the nation. They served until the first local elections were held under the new constitution on January 18, 1988. |
1989 | The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao region was first created on August 1, 1989 through Republic Act No. 6734 (otherwise known as the Organic Act) in pursuance with a constitutional mandate to provide for an autonomous area in Muslim Mindanao. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur,Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato,Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa and Zamboanga to determine if their residents would want to be part of the ARMM. |
1992 | Former Gen. Fidel Ramos wins presidential election with Aquino’s support; U.S. turns Subic Bay naval base to Philippine government, ending American military presence in the country. |
1996 | Philippine government agrees to greater autonomy for southernmost island of Mindanao, where Islamic separatists called Moro National Liberation Front wage guerrilla war. |
1998 | Former movie star Joseph Estrada elected president. |
2001 | Public outrage forces Estrada to step down; Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assumes the presidency; Estrada indicted for corruption; rebel group Moro Islamic Liberation Front agrees to a ceasefire. |
2004 | Presidential election takes place on May 10; Arroyo’s closest rival is film star Fernando Poe, Jr., a friend of Estrada. President Arroyo narrowly defeated Poe, taking 39.5% of the vote to his 36.6%, according to the unofficial count. |
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2005 | Members of the opposition call for the resignation of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in June, after she admitted to calling an election official during 2004’s presidential race. A taped phone conversation between Arroyo and an election commisisoner seems to suggest that she had tried to use her power to influence the outcome. The opposition filed an impeachment motion in July. |
2006 | Arroyo declared a state of emergency in February, saying the government had foiled an attempted coup by the military. She also banned rallies commemorating the 20th anniversary of the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos. Some observers, however, dismissed the report of the coup attempt as political maneuvering to gain support and weaken the opposition. |
2007 | The government said in November that it had reached a deal with the separatist Moro National Liberation Front that set boundaries for a Muslim homeland on the southern island of on Mindanao. |
2010 | In May, Benigno S. Aquino III is elected president during the first automated national elections in the Philippines. |
Source: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/philippinestime2.html, edited by; claro l. lagman
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE PH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
The 1987 PHILIPIINE CONSTITUTION is the backbone of the formation and operations of local government. It provides for a decentralized local government administration through the various territorial and political subdivisions such as, the autonomous regions, provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays. This article further mandates Congress to enact a local government code for a more responsive and accountable local government structure, and an organic act for the autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras.
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF THE PH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Source: Asian Development Bank
Local Government Categories and Hierarchies
The categories of local authorities in the Philippines are as follows:
* 1 Metropolitan Government;
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* 1 Autonomous Regional Government;
* 1 Special Administrative Region;
* 80 Provinces;
* 138 Cities;
* 1, 496 Municipalities; and
* 42,026 Barangays
Source: as of 2011 March
NATURE AND ATTRIBUTIONS:
The provisions are standard and descriptive of the functions and powers of local government and are similar to the provisions of Section 468 for Provinces. They stipulate that: “The Sangguniang Panlalawigan, as the legislative body of the province, shall enact ordinances, approve resolutions and appropriate funds for the general welfare of the province and its inhabitants pursuant to Section 16 of this code and in proper exercise of the corporate powers of the province as provided for under Section 22 of this code and shall:
1. Approve ordinances and pass resolutions necessary for an efficient and effective provincial government and, in this connection, shall:
i. Review all ordinances approved by the sanggunians of component cities and municipalities and executive orders issued by the Mayors of said component units to determine whether these are within the scope of the prescribed powers of the sanggunian and of the mayor;
ii. Maintain peace and order by enacting measures to prevent and suppress lawlessness, disorder, riot, violence, rebellion or sedition and impose penalties for the violation of said ordinances;
iii. Approve ordinances imposing a fine not exceeding five thousand Pesos (P 5,000.00) or imprisonment not exceeding one (1) year, or both in the discretion of the court, for the violation of a provincial ordinance;
iv. Adopt measures to protect the inhabitants of the province from the harmful effects of man-made or natural disasters and calamities and to provide relief services and assistance for victims during and in the aftermath of said disasters and calamities and in their return to productive livelihood following said events;
v. Enact ordinances intended to prevent, suppress and impose appropriate penalties for habitual drunkenness in public places, vagrancy, mendicancy, prostitution, establishment and maintenance of houses of ill repute, gambling and other prohibited games of chance, fraudulent devices and ways to obtain money or property, drug addiction, maintenance of drug dens, drug pushing, juvenile delinquency, the printing, distribution or exhibition of obscene or pornographic materials or publications and such other activities inimical to the welfare and morals of the inhabitants of the province;
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vi. Protect the environment and impose appropriate penalties for acts which endanger the environment, such as dynamite fishing and other forms of destructive fishing, illegal logging and smuggling of logs, smuggling of natural resource products and of endangered species of flora and fauna, slash and burn farming and such other activities which result in pollution, acceleration of eutrophication of rivers and lakes or of ecological imbalance;
vii. Subject to the provisions of this code and pertinent laws, determine the powers and duties of officials and employees of the province;
viii. Determine the positions and the salaries, wages, allowances and other emoluments and benefits of officials and employees paid wholly or mainly from provincial funds and provide for expenditures necessary for the proper conduct of programmes, projects, services and activities of the provincial government;
ix. Authorize the payment of compensation to a qualified person not in the government service who fills up a temporary vacancy, or grant honorarium to any qualified official or employee designated to fill a temporary vacancy in a concurrent capacity, at the rate authorized by law;
x. Provide a mechanism and the appropriate funds therefor, to ensure the safety and protection of all provincial government property, public documents, or records such as those relating to property inventory, land ownership, records of births, marriages, deaths, assessments, taxation, accounts, business permits and such other records and documents of public interest in the offices and departments of the provincial government; and
xi. When the finances of the government allow, provide for additional allowances and other benefits to judges, prosecutors, public elementary and high school teachers and other national government officials stationed or assigned to the province;
2. Generate and maximize the use of resources and revenues for the development plans, programme objectives and priorities of the province as provided for under Section 18 of this code, with particular attention to agro-industrial development and country-wide growth and progress and relative thereto, shall:
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xii. Enact the annual and supplemental appropriations of the provincial government and appropriate funds for specific programmes, projects, services and activities of the province, or for other purposes not contrary to law, in order to promote the general welfare of the province and its inhabitants;
xiii. Subject to the provisions of Book II of this code and applicable laws and upon the majority vote of all the members of the sangguniang panlalawigan, enact ordinances levying taxes, fees and charges, prescribing the rates thereof for general and specific purposes and granting tax exemptions incentives or relieves;
xiv. Subject to the provisions of Book II of this code and applicable laws and upon the majority vote of all the members of the sangguniang panlalawigan, authorize the provincial governor to negotiate and contract loans and other forms of indebtedness;
xv. Subject to the provisions of Book II of this code and applicable laws and upon the majority vote of all the members of the sangguniang panlalawigan, enact ordinances authorizing the floating of bonds or other instruments of indebtedness, for the purpose of raising funds to finance development projects;
xvi. Appropriate funds for the construction and maintenance or the rental of buildings for the use of the province; and upon the majority vote of all the members of the sangguniang panlalawigan, authorize the provincial governor to lease to private parties such public buildings held in a proprietary capacity, subject to existing laws, rules and regulations;
xvii. Prescribed reasonable limits and restraints on the use of property within the jurisdiction of the province;
xviii. Review the comprehensive land use plans and zoning ordinances of component cities and municipalities and adopt a comprehensive provincial land use plan, subject to existing laws; and
xix. Adopt measures to enhance the full implementation of the national agrarian reform programme in coordination with the Department of Agrarian Reform;
3. Subject to the provisions of Book II of this code, grant franchises, approve the issuance of permits or licenses, or enact ordinances levying taxes, fees and charges upon such conditions and for such purposes intended to promote the general welfare of the inhabitants of the province and pursuant to this legislative authority; shall:
xx. Fix and impose reasonable fees and charges for all services rendered by the provincial government to private persons or entities; and
xxi. Regulate and fix the license fees for such activities as provided for under this code;
4. Approve ordinances which shall ensure the efficient and effective delivery of basic services and facilities as provided for under Section 17 of this code and, in addition to said services and facilities, shall:
xxii. Adopt measures and safeguards against pollution and for the preservation of the natural ecosystem in the province, in consonance with approved standards on human settlements and environmental sanitation;
xxiii. Subject to applicable laws, facilitate or provide for the establishment and maintenance of a waterworks system or district waterworks for supplying water to inhabitants of component cities and municipalities;
xxiv. Subject to the availability of funds and to existing laws, rules and regulations, provide for the establishment and operation of vocational and technical schools and similar post-secondary institutions and, with the approval of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports and subject to existing laws on tuition fees, fix reasonable tuition fees and other school charges in educational institutions supported by the provincial government;
xxv. Establish a scholarship fund for the poor but deserving students in schools located within its jurisdiction or for students residing within the province;
xxvi. Approve measures and adopt quarantine regulations to prevent the introduction and spread of diseases within its territorial jurisdiction;
xxvii. Provide for the care of paupers, the aged, the sick, persons of unsound mind, abandoned minors, abused children, disabled persons, juvenile delinquents, drug dependents and other needy and disadvantaged persons, particularly children and youth below eighteen (18) years of age and subject to the availability of funds, establish and support the operation of centres and facilities for said needy and disadvantaged persons and facilitate efforts to promote the welfare of families below the poverty threshold, the disadvantaged and the exploited;
xxviii. Establish and provide for the maintenance and improvement of jails and detention centres and institute a sound jail management programme and appropriate funds for the subsistence of detainees and convicted prisoners in the province;
xxix. Establish a provincial council whose purpose is the promotion of culture and the arts, coordinate with government agencies and non-governmental organizations and, subject to the availability of funds, appropriate funds for the support and development of the same;
xxx. Establish a provincial council for the elderly which shall formulate policies and adopt measures mutually beneficial to the elderly and to the province and subject to the availability of funds, appropriate funds to support programmes and projects for the elderly and provide incentives for non-governmental agencies and entities to support the programmes and projects of the elderly; and
5. Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance”.
Functions of local governments or their so-called traditional responsibilities include construction and maintenance of city/municipal or provincial roads, provision of health services and agricultural extension work. There are shared services that local authorities perform or share with the central government. An example is secondary education. Another is poverty alleviation. A new function that has been devolved to local governments in the Local Government Code is environmental management. Another is licensing fishing vessels below 3,000 tons in weight.
Other devolved functions require local governments to improve their overall capabilities to perform. To achieve cost effectiveness in service delivery and in other local ventures, intermunicipal cooperation is highly encouraged. Section 13 Article X (Local governments) of the 1987 Constitution provides that: “Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in accordance with law.” The functional dichotomy or relationship between the local chief executives and their deputies is quite distinct. The provincial governor or city and municipal mayor manage their political units including their respective bureaucracies. The vice-governor or vice city or municipal mayor acts as presiding officers of the local legislative councils. Local policy formulation is a shared responsibility between the local chief executives and the members of the councils.