The Unit for Distance Education places specific emphasis on integrity and ethical behaviour with regards to the preparation of all written work to be submitted for academic evaluation. Although academic personnel will provide you with information regarding reference techniques, as well as ways to avoid plagiarism, you also have a responsibility to fulfil in this regard. Should you at any time feel uncertain about the requirements, you must consult the lecturer concerned before you submit any written work.
The policy for plagiarism is available on the policy website of the Office of the Registrar at http://www,up. ac. za/intranet/reqistar/20Q9-10-22 Plagiarism policv. pdf DEFINITION OF PLAGIARISM “Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct. It involves both appropriating someone else’s work, and passing it off as one’s own work afterwards. ” DEFINITION OF MISCONDUCT A student will be guilty of misconduct and may be dealt with in terms of this code, if he or she *in University context, infringes a person’s copyright or any other intellectual property,
Including, but not limited to plagiarism; * in University context, commits plagiarism by stating, or implying, original authorship of someone else’s written or creative work (words, images, ideas, opinions, discoveries, art work, music, recordings, computer-generated work), and/or by incorporating such work or material – in whole or in part – into his or her own work without properly acknowledging or citing the source. If you commit plagiarism, it will result in a disciplinary hearing and suspension of at least six months or exclusion for two years from the University of Pretoria.
Primary Education & Post Plowden Legacy Subject: Primary Education & Post Plowden Legacy Tutor: Alastair HorburyAssignment: Critique of given text - Chapter 6, 'Pupils at Work.' Due: Mon 14 Nov 94 INTRODUCTION The task assigned was to read all six chapters provided, select one and produce a critique on the subject matter. The chapter selected was number six which analysed pupils' and ' ...
For the period that you are a registered student at the Unit for Distance Education, the under-mentioned declaration must accompany all written work to be submitted. No written work will be accepted, unless the declaration has been completed and attached. I (full names & surname):Ethel Vera de Wet Student number:13024605 Module & Code: Management and leadership in Education LVO 721 DECLARATION: 1)I understand what plagiarism entails and I am aware of the University’s policy in this regard; 2)I declare that this Assignment 1 (e. . essay, report, project, assignment, dissertation, thesis, etc. ) is my own, original work. In cases where someone else’s work was used (whether from a printed source, the Internet or any other source), due acknowledgement was given and reference was made according to departmental requirements; 3)I did not make use of another student’s previous work and submit it as my own; and 4)I did not allow, and will not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of presenting it as his/her own work. _Ethel Vera de Wet___ 5 June 2012
Please type your full names and surname Date How to change School B from a low-rated school to a highly recommended school in the community. 1. Analysis of the climate and culture at School B The school climate consist out of the interaction between the school’s ecology, organisation structure, milieu and culture. The governing body, principal, teachers, parents and learners at any school experience this interaction. I agree that the learning culture at the school has been undermined.
The culture of School B is reflected in its climate that in is interwoven with the interpersonal relationships in the school. The climate of School B is visible in all aspects of the school. In school B there is no interaction between the parents and school management. The parents have no part in any decision-making process and there is a huge lack of communication. Nobody knows the goal, vision and mission of the school. The teachers feel unappreciated and no job satisfaction. The learners are negative because they feel they are constantly criticised.
There is a new system called S.T.W (school-to-work) introduced by Marc Tucker, the president of the National Center of Education and the economy. This scheme however, is not totally valid or at least this is the case for Phyllis Schlafly, the president of the eagle forum and the publisher of the monthly Education Reporter since 1986. The two ideas will be introduced clearly later. Tucker wants to ...
None of the three important partners in the school (educators, parents and learners) is happy. It is important to establish sound relationships. The relationships built by the principal influence the smallest task the school undertake. The principal has to establish relationships with everyone in the school: the learners, educators, administrative staff, cleaning staff and parents. The school culture is the believe in the values of the stakeholders of a school. The culture underpins the climate of a school.
According to McLean and Marshall(1993:4) culture is the collection of traditions, values, politics, beliefs and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in a organisation. In the education system there must be a culture of teaching and learning. In School B there are no proper teaching and learning and everyone is negative. The teachers do not have the desire to teach and they feel hopeless. There are tension and conflict between individuals and groups. Because of weak or no leadership nobody want to accept the other member’s believes or respect his norms and values.
A school must be an environment where teachers and learners must feel safe, homely and enjoy learning. The organisational culture of the school must emphasise the importance of education for the learner, community and country. As seen in the above mentioned definitions of learning culture, School B does not measure up to any of the characteristics and therefore does not qualify as a learning and teaching school with a well established culture and climate. To change is to implement new or better ideas or ways for something that does not work as it is suppose to.
The purpose of change is to “improve”, or to “achieve the goals” as set out in a policy, or to achieve “excellence”. Change must always be for the better, to improve. The first thing to do when you want to introduce educational change in a school will be to convince all the parties involve that the change is necessary and to the advantage of all. The changes have to be managed in a structured and orderly manner. This means that time is very important. Give time to the teachers to get use to the idea and to “want” to be part of the change.
Leadership Training The great leaders have an inbred sense of style. They just know what situation requires what response. But not everyone has that inbred sense. I work for a Law Firm of comparable size for the county it is located in. My firm is listed as a Top 100 Firm in the Philadelphia area. We have 3 comparatively sized offices and 3 satellite offices. They are many types of leaders in my ...
Implement changes in phases. Monitor the process and adjust if necessary. 2. LET’s MAKE A DIFFERENCE! Now that we know what the problems at School B are, we must seek the opportunities to change it. We are going to look at ways to change and make a difference in leadership, leadership styles, communication, motivation, decision-making and pedagogical interventions. 2. 1 LEADERSHIP Leadership is a social action where one person influences the process of directing behaviour of other individuals and members in a group towards a goal or achievement.
According to Farley (2002:393) the talent for leadership involves much knowledge and disciplined practice. Leadership contains two concepts: authority and power. Principals and teachers must use their authority and power to ensure a successful education. In School B the staff members are not happy with their work and must be directed by good leadership to experience job satisfaction. Anyone that takes on the responsibility and commitment to be a leader can make a difference in School B and change a negative situation around. Commitment allows one to make a real difference in any situation.
This person must have according to Sterling and Davidoff (2000:22) the following leader characteristics: accountability, discipline, flexibility, courage, integrity, tolerance, inner strength, confidence, decisiveness, enthusiasm, honesty, loyalty, dedication, compassion, perseverance, dependability and fairness. When asking the question:”What do leaders do? ” The answer should include the following: provides direction, offers inspiration, builds teamwork, set an example, gains acceptance, be an organisational architect, moral educator and social architect. (I van Deventer & AG Kruger 003:70) Integrity and competence goes hand in hand, because followers want leaders who are able to perform their tasks well. Integrity is associated with the qualities of honesty and consistency, while competence is developed through hard work and dedication. Competent people seek ways of learning and improving themselves. They realise that in a changing world it is important to keep up with new developments. When changing the negative leadership in School B around the leader, teachers and community must remember: “When the going gets tough, it is commitment that carries the leader through. (Unisa, 2006:87-88) 2. 1. 2 LEADERSHIP STYLES As the leader of school B the principal was suppose to manage his staff and learners. If certain structures do not function as it is suppose to, it is his responsibility to get help to make sure the specific structure function properly. Without all the prescribed structures in place, the school cannot function as a successful learning school. The principal and the teachers are responsible and accountable to the community as well as the Education Department to teach the learners.
The paradoxical issue of leadership has been such long subject of speculation and much has been focused on the determinants s of leadership effectiveness. Much of the leadership has been centered on the different concept of leadership, different ways of evaluating its effectiveness, and different approaches for studying leadership and how it forges and affects the effectiveness and the efficiency ...
The leadership style that the leader adopt in School B can have a positive or negative effect on achievement, performance, staff development and job satisfaction in a school. Ideal leaders are people who are task-oriented (productivity) and people-oriented. Task-oriented leaders want to get the job done. They focus on activities like planning, maintaining standards and performance, getting things done first, meeting of deadlines, directing and problem-solving (Love, 1994:37) They are also very critical of poor work and poor results. People-oriented leaders are concerned with relationships, feelings, teamwork, harmonising and compromising.
They are always looking out for the welfare of others and listens to the members. They always want approval before going on with a project. To turn School B around the principal must use his/her task- and people skills to bring out the best in everybody. There are four leadership styles we are going to discuss, namely Laissez-faire, Autocratic, Democratic and Situational. 2. 1. 2. 1 LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERSHIP STYLE This leadership style creates a situation where the individual has to make his own decisions and this results only in individual development.
Characteristics of the Laissez-faire leadership are when the leader is uninvolved, sometimes even passive. No direct decisions are made by the principal and he has no interest in the planning, organising and control in activities. Normally there is a lack of communication and the principal does not take responsibility of the activities. The lack of leadership results in poor school performance and goals and outcomes are not set. The educators and learners are frustrated and demotivated with little job satisfaction.
These are all the problems that exist in School B, and this leadership style will not be the best to follow. 2. 1. 2. 2 AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE The performance is usually good, but the people are unhappy. Characteristics of the Autocratic leadership style are that the leader have all the control and makes all the decisions. The principal communicate, no, order the members and no discussion takes place. The leader is in charge of the planning and organising of any activity or situation. Good human relations are not important for the leader, only that the task is done.
We are pleased to submit this research proposal for McDonald’s retaining their competitive position management decision problem. We have provided information, which we feel, will help illustrate what course of action should McDonald’s Arabia take to retain and expand its market share as well as improve its marketing strategies. The research would be completed in an estimated 8 weeks 1) Background ...
The result of the Autocratic leadership can be that fear is the motivation for educators and learners. Because of the fear and tense atmosphere the staff will be under a lot of stress and there will be little job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with school management. Unhappy staff will leave the school as soon as possible and this create a situation where the learners must cope with a new teacher all the time and there will be no trust and respect between teacher and learners. According to me this will not be the best way to change the negative climate and poor education in School B around. . 1. 2. 3 DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE Here we have a healthy balance between task- and people-oriented management. We have teamwork, with a two-way communication. Tasks, responsibilities and authority are delegated and everyone know exactly what to do. Leadership is through consultation and involvement of staff, learners and parents in the decisions that are made. This results in good human relations. Staff, learners and parents are motivated and want to reach the goals of the school. The staff have job satisfaction and are positive in creating ideas and learning.
Because of the fact that the staff is happy the staff turnover will be low. The problem with this leadership style is that when fast and critical decisions have to be made a lot of time is lost by consulting everybody. There may be more talking than action. 2. 1. 2. 4 SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE People and circumstances have to be taken in consideration when being a leader. A school represent a combination of leadership styles. These may be from autocratic leadership and decisions to spontaneous independent leadership and decisions by the staff. Every situation requires a unique action.
For School B this will be the best leadership style. The leader will look at the following behaviours: Task, relationship, maturity and leaderships. The principal and leaders in school B will be task oriented. They will organise and tell the staff and learners what they should do, when to do it, where to do it and how to do it. The relationship between the leaders and staff must be positive and motivational. There must be a open communication between leaders, staff and learners. The principal must look at the staff maturity levels, confidence and abilities before handing out any tasks. . 2 COMMUNICATION Communication can be described as a message conveyed by a sender to a recipient(s), either verbally or non-verbally with regards to activities, management tasks and/or relationship between staff, parents and learners and the school (Smith & Cronje, 1999:409) In the educational system it may be seen as the primary method by which the educator can influence the groups and individuals. To interact effectively with anyone – educators, learners and parents – one first need to understand where that person is “coming from” (I.
Research is important because it allows us to assess and review the quality of schools and education. It allows us to for improvement and policy change. It is help to find how research affects in your community. It is presents more information for examination. This is allow us for improvements based on better information and study. Education research is a field of inquiry aimed at advancing ...
J Prinsloo, 2012:74) The way in which any problem is communicated will determine whether the people who have to find the solutions respond positively or negatively. For effective communication a sufficient infrastructure must be in place. Communication is a process in the way people interact with one another. The principal in particular, is held responsible for the effectiveness of communication processes in the school. Without effective communication, it is not possible to plan, communicate the vision and the objectives to parents, learners and educators.
To convey a message and keep educators, learners and parents informed oral and written communication is used. Communication is needed for any decision-making and problem-solving process. (Prinsloo, I. J. 2010: 721) The planning of change, that takes place in School B must be communicated to everybody that is involved. The planning, roles and responsibilities should be explained. The staff that is involved should think and discuss the goals. The school policy and pupils code of conduct should be in writing and available for everybody. Decisions must be made on sufficient information.
Delegation will be effective only if all the tasks and responsibilities are clear to everyone. Coordination will be effective if the term and year plan are followed. There are five elements in the communication process. The communicator who sends the message, the message, the media used to send it, the recipient’s reaction and the feedback. In school B the principal will hand out a questionnaire. The staff must fill in the questionnaire so that the management can determine where the problems are. According to this priority list, the problems must be attended too.
During the first staff meeting the principal can ask the staff to help think of solutions to a problem. Remember, according to the Maslow Hierarchy the physical and safety needs must be attended to first. This means that the school building, school grounds and fencing must be first on the list. A clean and safe environment will have a positive effect on the learners and educators. By having a parent meeting and later sending out a letter, the management communicate with the community about the problem, solution, actions, and the responsibilities of all involved.
Communicate the goals, plans, policies, rules, regulations, decisions, responsibilities and the Codes of Conduct to all stakeholders so that they will know what the school wants to achieve, how it wants to go about it and what role they could play in this regard. 2. 3 DECISION-MAKING Problem solving and decision making are working hand -in- hand. Problem solving is the process of making and carrying out a decision that will overcome an obstacle. Decision making involves a choice between two or more alternatives. It is a thought process directed at the achievement of a school’s aim. I van Deventer; 2003: 96).
During the planning process, managers make a series of decisions that play an important role and eliminate problems. When the principal in School B involves the staff, learners and parents and give them the opportunity to participate in the decision making, he will achieve great motivation, effectiveness, communication and honest flow of information and awareness of problems. The ideal decision-making process includes having clear outcomes, knowledge of the problem, all information required, as well as having possible solutions.
Remember decisions are made to correct a situation or to improve it. There are certain steps to follow during the decision-making process. The first thing to do is to determine the existence and importance of the problem. The entire process should be seen in context of what the school is trying to achieve. (It’s mission, aims and outcomes).
A problem is an obstacle that’s in the way of achieving an outcome. So in step two you must identify the problem, determine the desired outcomes and getting all facts and opinions. Now we must state the real problem and determine the alternative solutions.
To help us, it is useful to split the needs into two categories: Essential and desirable ends. Essential ends mean that if they are achieved, it will mean that the situation has been put right or improved. Desirable ends are the needs which we would like to achieve but are not essential to correct or improve the situation. In step four we must evaluate and choose between alternative solutions. In doing this the principal must include the staff that actually have to do the work. They will know the situation and will have realistic solutions. Lastly the decision must be implemented. (Prinsloo, I.
J; 2010: 50) By using this information the principal in school B will determine the problems like frustrated teachers, a cold and unfriendly school environment, conflict between groups and individuals and lack of communication. Then the school management will set their desired objectives and get all the facts form the teachers, learners and parents. Determine alternative solutions by asking the members to brainstorm. Tap your staff’s creativity. Evaluate the solutions and help the staff to choose because they are going to do the job. Implement the solution made, example cleaning the school grounds.
Now implement the solution by starting to pick up papers and rubbish, and clean the school grounds. 2. 4 MOTIVATION Motivation is the influencing of people to achieve the aim that the manager wants him to achieve. (Gerber 1998:329) Motivation depends on two elements: the people’s needs, behaviour and actions as well as the aims. Through planning and organising the school management will determine the outcomes and aims. The principal, school management, heads of departments and staff must work together to reach the goal set. The motivational cycle consist out of three steps. The need, the drive (motivation) and the goal.
In School B the need is to turn a negative situation, parents, learners and staff around to a more positive learning environment. At this moment there are a lack of communication, leadership, respect, learning material and job satisfaction. The drive in School B must be to look at each need and to take charge. Communicate with the staff, learners and parents. Listen to their problems and demands. Plan and organise a way to help all the members to stand together and commit to a better School. The principal and management must find out from the staff what will help them to reach the goals.
The aim/goal of School B will be positive teachers, learners and parent. Decisions must be made by a committee selected by the parents. There must be trust in the principal to make snap decisions. The staff will then have job satisfaction and happy learners that want to study and have a better life. Motivation can be explained according to different motivation theories, namely Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two-factor, Post enrichment, Aim and Reinforcement theory. According to the Maslow theory (Smith & Cronje, 1992:328) only unsatisfied needs can influence behaviour.
When the lower needs have been satisfied the higher order becomes the motivator of behaviour. Let me explain how we can use Maslow’s hierarchy to create change in School B. The Physical needs can be satisfied by school buildings that is in a good condition. When the classrooms, tables and chairs are in a good condition it will create a learning friendly environment. Maybe the school can also start a soup kitchen or a tuck shop where the children can get food. Nobody can study on a empty stomach. To feel part of the school and safe the children and parents can help make the school rules that applies to the day to day situation.
With better communication between educators and learners socialisation are created. Friendships, acceptance and understanding by the members becomes more and more and this create a positive learning atmosphere. The educators and learners will have more self-respect. The learners will have respect for their school uniforms and for what it represents. There will be the need for success, for example to become head boy of the school. The Herzberg theory states that by making the work challenging and attractive for the individuals the task itself becomes worth doing.
The leader must focus on the importance of a task. He must have insight and an interest in the task. By smaller classes the dissatisfaction of teachers will be reduced and will create a situation where the teacher is motivated. By using the Post enrichment theory, the capable and experienced staff can be put in charge of a school activity. This will create commitment, achievement and recognition that are great motivational tools. By setting aims the task-oriented person will perform better and meet a deadline. The aims should be systematically identified. The aims must be challenging, but realistic.
Reinforcing positive and pleasant results and consequences the behaviour of the educators, learners and parent will change. The individual is praised and rewarded (Prize giving) the closer he comes to the desired behaviour. Reinforcement can also be negative namely punishment and suppression. The style of motivation in School B will depends on the leadership style of the principal. By using positive motivational methods like merit awards, promotions, recognition and delegation of greater responsibility and authority the staff will be encouraged and experience greater job satisfaction.
According to Gerber 1998:287 ; Kroon et al 1991:332 and Prinsloo, 1993:68 educational leaders should always recognise the individual differences among the staff. The outcomes must be challenging to motivate the staff who have a need for success. Include the staff in the decision-making process. Make sure the educators feel useful and important by delegating tasks meaningful. Allow staff members to take part in the managing process. By clear communication the staff must be informed about the aims and results. Delegate tasks and authority to competent people. Acknowledge staff personally when they deserve it.
Ensure healthy competition among staff members as a motivation to greater success. 2. 4. 1 Motivation of teachers When the principal assigns a mentor to a new teacher, the new teacher will have a feeling of support and success. This will create a lower teacher turn-over. This mentor must teach the same grades and subjects as the new teacher. To change the negative attitudes from the teachers around the principal can have a “work hard and play hard” policy. Reward the teachers when you thank them for a job well-done. Hand out a thank you note with a chocolate or a nice “bring and braai” for the teacher and his family after school.
This will relieve some stress and the principal meet the teacher on a social manner. If the staff is very collegial and joke around it is easy to share best practises and discuss important issues openly. When people have some control over their work environment, they are happy. By empowering teachers and staff in decision-making you will have a positive climate and a lower teacher turn-over. When they take part in the decision-making the staff feel that they are respected and valued. If the principal praise and acknowledge the teachers work and recognise their achievements publicly it make them feel appreciated.
When the principal’s feedback is more positive than negative the teachers will have a positive attitude towards their work, learners and principal.. This doesn’t mean that the principal must oversee work that’s wrong, but he must correct it in a positive manner. The principal must put in an effort to “hear” the teachers. Have informal gatherings, ask questions, have a questionnaire filled in. By really working on the problems the teachers have and trying to solve it, the teacher feels he can trust the management and feel motivated to do his work to the best of his ability.
When a good school climate exists and educator morale is high, educators feel positive about each other and, at the same time, experience a sense of accomplishment from their jobs (Hoy & Miskel, 1987:112)Teachers who feel good about themselves and work will try to reach all learners – even those who struggle. This will not only motivate the teacher but also the learner. 2. 4. 2 Motivation of learners The learners in school B will feel better and less criticised if there are rules that is applicable to the school situation.
If all the teachers follow the same classroom rules, the learners will know what are expected from them and the teachers will have a better discipline in the class. Learners are more motivated in class when they feel that they can rely on the teacher, feel safe and participate actively in the class. Learners are enthusiastic about school and classes that provoke their intellectual curiosity and encourage participation.. According to Hilsen, 1998, the learners must really know the teacher and must be treated with respect. The teacher must make an effort to know each child’s name.
In an educator-learner relationship that is characterized by caring, listening, questioning, the learner will be more willing to take risks (I van Deventer & AG Kruger 2003: 15).
A positive school climate will have a influence in learners results and motivations. There will be a reduction of absentees and the drop-out rate will become lower. The encouragement of learners will built their confidence in their efforts even if they fail to succeed the first time (Savo, 1996).
2. 4. 3 Motivation of parents Motivate the parents by letting them be a part of the school. Lethoko,1998:97) The principal can involve them by being a member of the governing body, attending parent evenings and really listen to them and their concerns, asking them to attend and help with extra-mural activities. Then school’s climate must be warm and inviting. When they feel welcome and comfortable at the school, their attitude will be positive and encouraging. (Squelch & Lemmer, 1994:93).
If there is effective communication between the school and parents, the parents will put in an effort to help the educators with the learning of the learners, example the helping children with their homework.
What recommendations would I make to the staff , parents and learners of School B? * Let’s start by talking to each other and not about each other. * Let’s respect each other’s point of view. * Let’s respect each other for the fact that we are all human. * Let’s believe in each other for wanting to contribute to change and to make a difference. * Concentrate on the problem and the possible solutions and not on a personal agenda. * Trust the decisions made and trust the people chosen to implement the solutions. * Don’t be prejudiced. Relate to others in an affirmative and supportive way. 2. 4 PEDAGOGICAL INTERVENTIONS The enhancement of the quality of teaching and learning is a key priority of the minister of Education (Garson, 2000:4).
A dominant belief in educational and government circles in South Africa is that principals can and should make a difference to the academic standards of a school. (Christie, 1998: 291) The responsibility of the principal to enhance the school’s teaching and learning activities has been broadly identified as his instructional leadership role (Haughey & MacElwain, 1992: 105).
The two basic assumptions that underpins the instructional leadership task of the principal are as follows (Kruger,1999a: 12): The organisational structure and culture of the school and the principal’s influence on these relate to the effectiveness of teaching and learning. The second assumption is the principal’s personal convictions about the nature and purpose of education. The five basic elements of the principal are according to Kruger (1992:432-433), the defining of the school’s mission, managing the curriculum and instruction, supervising teaching, monitoring learners progress and promoting an instructional climate.
A vision and mission for school B is crucial for the effectiveness of the instructional programme of the school – it sets the general tone and direction (Haughey & MacElwain, 1992: 109).
From the vision , clear aims, outcomes and expectations can be established. The management team divides the school’s aims in long and short term objectives. Examples for the long term aim can be improvement of academic achievements and cooperation among learners and educators. Short term aims can be the attendance of specific courses at teaching centres in order to promote teaching skills and the introduction of test periods.
The school’s educational programme consist of curricular and extra-curricular activities. The function is to structure different subjects, learning areas and activities in the school to accomplish educative teaching. The following five principals of OBE form the guidelines for managing the curriculum and instruction (South Africa, 2000a 11-13).
Content teaching should promote values and skills, knowledge should be presented in an integrated way, teaching and learning should focus on outcomes, the learner is the centre and assessment is part of the learning process.
School B need a effective timetable. The timetable is the key in ensuring that the flow of teaching and learning goes on in the most predictable and ideal circumstances. The effective use of teaching time can be ensured by allocating the correct time and periods according to departmental prescriptions. According to the Department of Education the purpose of developmental appraisal is to help every educator to keep growing and learning through professional development.
The principal must conduct development programmes and activities like staff meetings, staff development activities, formal and informal observations and consultations, and the coaching of individual educators. Heading specific subject teams, the team may undertake the following (Theron & Botha, 1998: 96): Subject meetings; interpretation of syllabus; subject policies; subject files; subject control and class observation. The principal must keep the staff informed of new teaching techniques and curriculum development.
Sergiovanni & Starrat, (1988: 405-411) and Blairs, (1992: 31) identified the following in teaching improvement methods: Formal classroom visits, professional development with the help of peers’ informal classroom visits, information related to the curriculum. By means of assessment the principals provide control on the preparation of learners. (Kruger, 1992: 433) A continuous assessment ensures that all the teaching and learning outcomes are attained, and can be done by tests, examinations, learner portfolio’s and self and peer assessment and projects. A positive school climate should be one that makes learning exciting.
When teachers and learners are supported for their achievements, there is a shared sense of purpose and learning will not be difficult (Kruger 1992: 433) The positive organisational climate in which effective teaching and learning can take place is there for an important element in the school. 2. 5 CONCLUSION In conclusion by creating a positive school climate the teachers, learners and parents will have a positive influence on the culture of teaching and learning. When the staff and learners feel safe, there will be the maximum opportunity for the teachers to teach and the learners to learn and they will achieve academic success.
Clear values and goals will direct the staff, learners and parents to successful teaching and learning. A code of conduct will ensure a disciplined and orderly environment. By communication between the learners and the educators the moral between them will be high. The teachers will care about the learners and will be dedicated and committed to effective learning. School leaders need to help educators create high-achieving learning environments for all learners, where the most advanced curriculum and instruction techniques combine to support learning. Educators engage learners in problem solving and exploring ideas.
The learner learn to construct knowledge rather than just memorizing it. By law children have to attend school to be educated. It is the responsibility of the SMT to create an environment that is conductive to teaching and learning. This include a positive school climate, sound classroom environment, sound home-school relationships, effective leadership and management, good administration, neat buildings and facilities, available resources, high professional standards among educators, healthy relationships between all roll-players, order and discipline and effective instructional leadership.
If all above mentioned characteristics is in place, there would be no reason for any teacher, learner or parent to be unsatisfied. It is a circle effect. If the principal is an effective and competent leader his/her staff will be happy, which will make the learners happy which will make the parents happy which will keep the principal happy. A positive school climate is more than one where children feel good. It is concerned with the culture, ethos, mission and purpose of schooling.