Lekhnath – 12, Kaski Decision of Dissertation Evaluation Committee A Dissertation Entitled “Socio-Economic Status and Living Arrangement of Elderly People” (Comparative Study between Baidan and Sarangkot VDC, Kaski) Having 6 Credit-Hours for the partial fulfillment of Masters of Population, Gender and Development, submitted by Sabitra Joshi (Neupane), P. U. Regd. No 2010-3-40-00 has been accepted and approved on the date 2nd January 2013. —————————– —————————– ————————
AKNOWLEDGEMENT It’s my great pleasure to submit this thesis entitled “Socio-Economic Status and Living Arrangement of Elderly People” (Comparative Study between Baidam and Sarangkot VDC, A Case of Kaski District) for the partial fulfillment of requirement for my masters Degree in Population, Gender and Development program (MPGD), Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Pokhara University, Nepal. First and foremost, my deepest acknowledgement and deepest gratitude goes to my academic supervisor Mr.
Ramji Adhikari, Lecturer School of Development and Social Engineering, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Pokhara University, for his constant inspiration, continuous guidance and wholehearted support for the completion of this study. I am grateful to Dean (SDSE) Dr. Indra Prasad Tiwari, Dr. Ananata Raj Dhungana,the program Director of SDSE, and Faculty member Lecture and program Coordinator Mr. Arjun Kumar Thapa and Lecturer Mr. Rishikesh Pandey for their invaluable suggestions and encouragement. My deepest gratitude goes to my friends Ms. Praba Bhattari,Ms.
Social studies is defined by the Board of Director of the National Council for the social studies as, the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, ...
Indira Parajuli ,who indeed helped me as a painstakingly throughout this research. My sincere thanks goes to all VDC staff of Baidam ward no 6 and Sarangkot. I would specially thanks to all senior citizen of Methalange ,Gyarjati and Baidam for providing me their time and valuable information. I am much greatful to my father in law Durga Datta Neupane and Mr. Krishna Gautum, social worker of Methalane who gives me his valuable time during my filed work. I am much thankful to information and documentation centre DDC, (Kaski), Information centre, Pokhara sub-metropolis.
I also thankful to “Ageing Nepal” for their regular support for completing my dissertation. Finally, but most importantly, all the inspiration and the courage to take this journey came from my family ,my mother Devi Joshi, aunties Sita Pandey, Gaura Risal ,Ambika Pandey, Jayanti Pandey and Mama ,Tilak Bikram Pandey for their generous support. Enormous credit goes to my husband Hem Raj Neupane and my daughter Tribisa for supporting me the entire time wholeheartedly. My daughter also deserves gratitude for her tolerance. ………………………. Sabitra Joshi January 2013 ABSTRACT
This study aims to identify the living arrangement of elderly people in urban and rural setting of Kaski district. For this purpose study was carried out in Baidam and Sarangkot VDC of Kaski district. Analysis has been done by selecting 114 elderly respondents by purposive random sampling technique. Sample size represents the 24 percent of the universe among them 73 respondents from Baidam and 41 from ward no 6 and 7 of Sarangkot VDC. Socio-demographic factors such as age, religion, cast, marital status, gender, death of children, education of the respondent has been used in this study.
Economic factors such as household income, state of economic dependency of elderly people, housing condition and entitlement, income sources, working condition are analysized. Similarly health and psychological factors such as health condition, having medical problems, presence of disability, treatment approach likewise feeing of isolation, family behavior, husband-wife relationship, feeling of insecurity, neglect and verbal abuse also been accounted in the study as determinants of living arrangements of elderly people in the study area.
Late adulthood is a period of various biological changes which can impact on an individual’s health and ability to function as easily in society. The stereotypical changes of this stage are paler less elastic skin resulting in wrinkles, thinning hair gradually turning from grey to white, weaker bones, muscle loss, and vision and hearing impairments e. g. cataracts and difficulty with word ...
Analysis has been done in three groups considering the factors related to the objectives and hypothesis. Collected data are analysis in two major sectors under univariate and bivariate analysis. In univariate analysis the percentage analysis of both dependent (comparative living arrangement of elderly people in both study area) and all independent variables have been carried out individually. In bivariate analysis ,first of all cross tabulation of dependent and independent variables has been done then by using the chi square test the significance of association between dependent and independent variables have been observed.
Significant influences have been found in case of socio-demographic factors such as sex, marital status and living arrangement of elderly people. In case of psychological variable like feeling of isolation and family type has significant influence in living arrangement. Likewise state of economic dependency of elderly people and living arrangement, psychological problems and family type, health problems and family type, satisfaction with living arrangement and economic status of elderly people are significant association.
This study thus suggests policy makers and concerned authorities to give attention towards elderly economic, health, psychological and entire living arrangement. Elderly policy should be strongly enforced. State should create such program that meet the needs of specific groups of elderly people such as marginalized, poorest of the poor elderly. OAA/WA system should be accessible and acceptable to all elderly people. TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS |PAGE | |TITLE COVER PAGE |i | |APPROVAL SHEET |ii | |ACKNOWLEDGEMENT |iii | |ABSTRACT |iv | |TABLE OF CONTENT |v-vi | |LIST OF TABLE |vii-ix | |LIST OF FIGURE |x | |LIST OF ABBREVIATION S |xi | |I |INTRODUCTION |1-9 | | |1. 1 |Background |1 | | |1. 2 |Statement of the Problem |3 | | |1. |Objective of Study |6 | | |1. 4 |Hypothesis of the Study |6 | | |1. 5 |Significance of the Study |7 | | |1. 6 |Limitation of the Study |7-8 | | |1. 7 |Organization of the study |8 | | |1. |Operational Definition of the Terms |8-9 | |II |LITERATURE REVIEW |10- | | |2. 1 |Theoretical Overview |10-14 | | |2. 2 |Global and SARRC Countries Scenario on Ageing |15-19 | | |2. 3 |Empirical Study in Nepal |19-23 | | | |2. 3. |Social Status of Elderly People in Nepal |20-21 | | | |2.
Respondents of the Study The proponent selected the high school students of Villamor High School to be the respondents of the study, preferably the freshmen and sophomore students. The proponent had came up with 119 students as respondents having 50 representatives from the first year level, 61 from the second year level and 8 representatives from the game enthusiasts/software programmers. The ...
3. 2 |Societal Implication of Elderly in Nepal |21-23 | | | |2. 3. 3 |Literacy of Elderly in Nepal |23 | | | |2. 3. 4 |Marital Status of Elderly in Nepal |23 | | |2. 4 |Madrid International plan of Action on Ageing (2002) |23 | | |2. |International and National Social Security Provisions |24 | | |2. 6 |Policy Context on Elderly People |25-26 | | | |2. 6. 1 |Legal Provision |25 | | | |2. 6. 2 |Senior Citizen Policy 2058 |25 | | | |2. 6. 3 |National Plan of Action on Ageing 2062 |26 | | | |2. 6. |Senior Citizen Act, 2063 and Regulations 2065 |26 | | |2. 7 | Determinants of Living Arrangement of Elderly People |27-28 | | | |2. 7. 1 |Demographic Determinants of Living Arrangements of Elderly |27 | | | |2. 7. 2 |Socio-Economic Determinants of Living Arrangements of Elderly |38 | | |2. 8 |Summary |29 | | |2. |conceptual Framework |30 | |III |METHODOLOGY |31-34 | | |3. 1 |Research Site and Population |31 | | |3. 2 |Rational for the Selecting Study Sites |32 | | |3. 3 |Universe and Sample |32 | | |3. | Sampling Method |33 | | |3. 5 |Nature of Data and Data Collection Procedure |33 | | |3. 6 |Methods and techniques of data analysis |34 | |IV |RESULT AND DISCUSSION |35 | | |4. 1 |Socio-Demographic and economic Status of Living Arrangement of Elderly People |35-47 | | |4.
|Comparative Differentials of Living Arrangement of Elderly people between Baidam and Sarankot |47-64 | | |4. 3 |Psychological and Health Problem Faced by Elderly People |64-72 | | |4. 4 | Study Hypothesis and Result |72-73 | |V |FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS |74-85 | |REFERENCE |85-89 | |APPENDIX |90-102 | LIST OF TABLES Table | |Page | |2. 1 |Trend of Increasing Proportion of Old People. |21 | |3. 1 | Total Population and Sample Size of the Study Area |33 | |4. 1 |Socio Status of Respondents |36 | |4. 2 |Age, Gender and Marital Status wise Distribution of Respondents |37 | |4. |Demographic Characteristics of Respondents |38 | |4. 4 | Level of Dependency among Respondents in Baidam Vs Sarangkot |40 | |4. 5 |Major Occupation among the Sampled Household in Study Area |41 | |4. 6 |Showing Status of the Family Income Per month in Urban Vs Rural Area |41 | |4. 7 | Ownership of Residence in Urban Vs Rural Area |42 | |4. |Working Condition among Respondents |43 | |4. 9 | Economic Status of the Respondent in Urban Vs Rural Area |44 | |4. 10 |Source of personal income of Elderly in Baidam and Sarangkot |46 | |4. 11 | Distribution of Assets under the Ownership of the Respondent |46 | |4.
The Essay on Summarise the main development of a child from the age range 0-2 years, 3-5 years and 5-8 years 2
The first physical stages in a baby happen after they are born. They will start by learning how to hold their head up. Babies have a grasping reflex which enables them to automatically tighten their fingers when an object is placed in the palm of their hands. Around 6 months a baby will be able to roll forward and maybe start to crawl and shuffle their bodies around. Mobility is hugely increased ...
12 | Living Arrangement of Elderly by Sex |48 | |4. 3 | Distribution of Living Arrangement and Caregivers of Respondents |49 | |4. 14 |Responsibilities of Household Management among the Household of Respondent |50 | |4. 15 |Main Caregivers of Elderly Respondent in study Area |51 | |4. 16 |State of Satisfaction with Living Arrangement among respondents |52 | |4. 17 |Period of Living Alone among Respondents |53 | |4. 8 |Causes of Living Alone among Respondents |53 | |4. 19 |State of Economic Dependency and Living Arrangements |54 | |4. 20 |Types of House, Level of Comfortability, Space and Sanitation |55 | |4. 21 |Family Type of the Respondents in Baidam and Sarangkot |57 | |4. 22 |No of Respondents by Age and Living arrangement |58 | |4. 3 |Living Arrangements by Marital Status ( Bivariate Analysis) |59 | |4. 24 |Economic status and Satisfaction with living arrangement (Bivariate Analysis) |60 | |4. 25 |Access to Social Security Scheme among Respondent |60 | |4. 26 | Uses of OAA & WA among Respondents |62 | |4. 27 |Trend of Migration among the Family Member of Respondent |63 | |4. 8 | Effect of Migration on Living Arrangement of Respondents |64 | |4. 29 |Health Status of Elderly in Baidam Vs Sarangkot |64 | |4.
30 |Showing the Different Health Problems Faced By Elderly in the Study Area |65 | |4. 31 |Treatment Approach Access during Illness among Respondents |66 | |4. 32 |Health Problems among Elderly and Type of Family |66 | |4. 33 |Health Problems among Respondent by Age |67 | |4. 4 |Supportive Persons during Health Problems |67 | |4. 35 |Correlation between Family Type and Having Health Problems among the Respondents |68 | |4. 36 |Need of Other Persons in Case of Illness/Sickness |68 | |4. 37 |Food Talking Behavior among Elderly Respondent |69 | |4. 38 |Feeling of Isolation among Elderly people |69 | |4. 9 |Distribution Causes of Isolation of Elderly |69 | |4. 40 |Respondent’s Desired Person of their Property after their Demise |70 | |4. 41 |Family Members Behavior towards Elderly. |70 | |4. 42 |Respondents Opinion that Family Member are Happy with them. |71 | |4. 43 |Psychological Problems faced by Respondents |71 | |4. 44 | Psychological Stress and Family Type. (Bivariate Analysis) |72 | LIST OF FIGURES Figure | |Page | |2. 1 |conceptual Framework |30 | |3. 1 |Map of the study area |33 | |4. 1 |Family Type belonging to both study |37 | |4. 2 |Proportion of older persons living by place of Residence |40 | |4. |Living Arrangement among the Respondents in Baidam and Sarangkot |48 | |4. 4 |Access to OAA/WA among the Elderly |61 | ABBREVIATIONS CBSCentral Bureau of Statistics DDCDistrict Development Committee FGDFocus Group Discussion FigFigure GCNGeriatric Center Nepal GoNGovernment of Nepal KIIKey Informant Interview MIPAAMadrid International plan of Action on Ageing NDPNepal Demographics Profile NEPAN Nepal Participatory Action Network NPCNational Planning Commission OAAOld Age Allowance PSMPokhara Sub-metropolis
Ageing is a byproduct of physical, psychological and social processes. While contextualizing the process of ageing, the main thrust of the sociology both as a discipline and movement, is to reflect on how and to what extent transformations in the society and of the individual life influence each other, as individuals of different age categories pass through social system – instructions, values and ...
PUPokhara University SDSESchool of Development and Social Engineering SPSSStatistical Package for Social Science SRTI Statistical Research and Training Institute SSASocial Security Allowance UKUnited Kingdom UNUnited Nation UNDESAUnited Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UNDPUnited Nation Development Program UNFPA United Nation Population Fund USAUnited State of America VDCVillage Development Committee WAWidowhood Allowance WHOWorld Health Organizatio CHAPTER I Introduction 1. 1 Background Population ageing normally refers to an increase in the proportion of population aged 60 and above years.
WHO definition on elderly; Most developed world countries have accepted the chronological age of 65 years as a definition of ‘elderly’ or older person, but like many westernized concepts, this does not adapt well to the situation in Africa. While this definition is somewhat arbitrary, it is many times associated with the age at which one can begin to receive pension benefits. At the moment, there is no United Nations standard numerical criterion, but the UN agreed cutoff is 60+ years to refer to the older population. “The ageing process is of course a biological reality which has its own dynamic, largely beyond human control. However, it is also subject to the constructions by which each society makes sense of old age. In the developed world, chronological time plays a paramount role.
bell and the People of Her World e world revolves around our relationThship with other people. Our relationships with our family, friends and even strangers are what makes us into our own unique person. bell has her own way of dealing with of dealing with people, she is not the conventional child at all. Her views on racism and gender are the complete opposite of society s opinion. She also loves ...
The age of 60 or 65, roughly equivalent to retirement ages in most developed countries is said to be the beginning of old age. In many parts of the developing world, chronological time has little or no importance in the meaning of old age. Other socially constructed meanings of age are more significant such as the roles assigned to older people; in some cases it is the loss of roles accompanying physical decline which is significant in defining old age. Thus, in contrast to the chronological milestones which mark life stages in the developed world, old age in many developing countries is seen to begin at the point when active contribution is no longer possible. ” (Gorman, 2000).
Ageing is a process of gradual change in physical appearance and mental situation that cause a person to grow old (Dahal, 2002).
Although ageing is defined in terms of specific age, the underlying concerns are the functional status of senior individuals, rather than their chronological age. The issue is rather concerned with the old age disabilities and that one’s condition as aged depends on personal health, sex and socio-economic status. Then it is important to recognize that studies of elderly population are concerned with the status of ageing and not a specific age (Mason, 1992).
The Senior Citizens Acts 2006, Nepal also defines the senior citizens as “people who are 60 years and above”.
The retirement age for military in Nepal is 45 to 48 years for lower class, for general government service 58 years, and for university teachers and the judiciary services 63 years (Khanal, 2009).
UN 1980 defines 60 years as the age of transition to the elderly segment of the population, adopted by world Assembly on ageing in Vienna, 1982. Most developed countries have accepted age of 65 and less developing countries have accepted age of 60 and above. But in the context of Africa is age of 50 so, old age should not be limited with time bond 60-65 years, as old age is directly related to physical weakness. In 1980s, the growth rate of aged people were 2. % per annum in the world which is higher than overall growth rate of world population i:e 1. 7%(Torrey. et. al,1987).
In Nepal elderly population also increasing in trends. There were 1. 5 million elderly inhabitants (2001 census).
During the years of 1991-2001, the annual elderly population growth rate was 3. 39%, higher than the annual population growth rate of 2. 3. Life expectancy in Nepal has increased from approximately 27 years in 1951 to 64 years in 2008 (CBS, 2008).
Life expectancy at birth male of 65. 26 years and for female 67. 82 years in 2011(NDP, 2012) . There are total 60+ population are 76 corer now in the world. (760 million).
Among them 66 percent is only from developing countries and in 2050 elderly inhabitants will be 80 percent only in developing countries. 60+ occupied 9% of the total population of Nepal i. e. there are more than 2. 6 million elderly inhabitants. (2011 census) (Jestha Nagarik. sept/oct, 2012) The Japanese enjoy the world’s longest and healthiest lives. This fortunate situation, however, is also causing concern. The rate of population aging in Japan is much greater than that in other developed countries (Pushkar & Raikhola, 2009).
In 2000, Italy was the world’s oldest nation, with more than 18% of its population aged 65 and above compared with 8% in 1950.
Also notably high levels above 17% were in Sweden, Belgium, Greece and Japan. . In 2010 In Japan, the population of elderly citizens (65 years and over) was 29. 29 million, constituting 23. 1 percent of the total population and marking record high both in terms of number and percentage. This percentage of elderly in the population is the highest in the world. The speed of aging of Japan’s population is much faster than in advanced Western European countries or the U. S. A. Although the population of the elderly in Japan accounted for only 7. 1 percent of the total population in 1970. Average life expectancy in Japan climbed sharply after World War II, and is today at the highest level in the world.
In 2010, life expectancy at birth was 86. 4 years for women and 79. 6 years for men (SRTI, 2011 Japan).
1. 2 Statement of the problem Growth rate of world’s population is not only the biological phenomena, rather is also the co-functioning result of different aspects/factors associated to it. Due to human being intellectual practices, several technological inventions are facilitating human being lives easier and easier, that could possess control of mortality of age group people including lengthening the life expectancy of people. The medical and technological advancement has vital role in their concern that to some extent, people can successes to lengthen life expectancy.
Contrary to it, developing countries like Nepal are still experiencing the higher fertility rate but rapid decline mortality in all age, ultimate result is obviously growth in ageing population. Ageing population is presenting with new opportunities and challenges in all over the world. Nepal also faced this as problem extensively in the coming years. Due to physical inability, economically inactive, they are in vulnerable. They are dependent upon the family and society; they faced so many problems if their sons and daughters leave elderly people alone. The issue of elderly people is multidimensional issue with different sectoral implications. Social implication, economic, political implication. Due to modernization, native culture is being replaced by acculturalization.
For example, joint family system is splitting into nuclear family while traditional practice was of joint family where elderly people are respected as a forefather, the god and so on. People still think, sons are the care takers in the old age, as they are not sufficient social safety net provision for aged people (Manish M, 2005).
Nepal is still characterized by its traditional ways of living where several generations live jointly within the same household. With improved health infrastructure and increased life expectancy, the elderly are expected to live longer. The joint family system is on the decline and more and more families are becoming nuclear.
Apart from this, the elderly in Nepal are facing several other challenges, such as lack of guaranteed and sufficient income to support themselves, absence of social security, loss of social status and recognition, non-availability of opportunities for creative use of their time and persistent ill health. Studies have shown that a higher proportion of the elderly are living miserable lives without any hope. Elderly people are the stage of twilight age. They are experienced and respected population of society and country. Elderly male member of the family or the community automatically takes the role of head-ship in the family /community in the context of Nepal.
But general condition of overall elderly population is very poor. They are economically inactive, socially isolated from the family and community. They are facing so many problems grounded on health, social services, psychological aspects, security, lack of participation, lack of elderly education, lack of recreational facilities, loss of authority, power for decision making in the society. They are over shadow, isolated and neglected social group in our country. Government services, I/NGOs activities for elderly people are very limited and they did not cover all of them in the country specially the elderly people of remote areas. Many challenges and risk are existing in their lives after they retire.
These challenges vary with age, sex, family structure, caste, and economic status. Increasing in ageing population in Nepal will take place in a situation where the country is entirely ill-equipped to provide health care system stressing chronic diseases and curative health has no special social security system, has underdeveloped pension system and is characterized by stagnant economy. The existing provision such as pension which is limited retired civil servants, police and army officials who constitute insignificance portion of elderly in Nepal NRs. 100 per months for those aged 75 or more leaves majority of aged (between60-74years) without any support.
More important, care –giving generation, in the face of economic hardship and competition, are faced with difficult choices of providing basic needs and services for themselves, their children and /or their aged parents. The mere emotional support this generation could provide will be grossly insufficient when aged is in the extreme need of both economic security and emotional support (Subedi, 1996).
A majority of elders depend upon agriculture and are living under the poverty. They suffer from deprivation, illiteracy, poor health and nutrition, low social status, discrimination and restriction on mobility. Because of poverty, they enter into old age in a poor state of health and without saving or material assets. They lack means to fulfill their basic needs such as food, clothes, shelter, health care, and safe drinking water.
Gender inequality and discrimination against women is a common social phenomenon that elderly widows suffer the most (NEPAN, 2002).
According to message delivered by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in 2012, “The WHO estimates that between 4 and 6 per cent of older persons worldwide have suffered from a form of elder abuse — physical, emotional, financial. Furthermore, emerging research suggests that abuse, neglect and violence against older persons, both at home and in institutions, are much more prevalent than currently acknowledged. Such abuse is an unacceptable attack on human dignity and human rights. Making matters even worse, cases often remain unreported and unaddressed.
Alarmed at this widening problem, the United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, a new observance to be marked annually on 15 June. Respect for elders is an integral part of many societies. As people live longer, and as we strive for sustainable and inclusive development, it is time to revive and expand our appreciation for those who have advanced in years. A modern civilization can only live up to that name if it preserves the tradition of honoring, respecting and protecting society’s elders”. Rapid population ageing is a global phenomenon, and both an accomplishment and a challenge. In 1980s,the growth rate of aged people were 2. 4% per annum in the world which is higher than overall growth rate of world population i:e 1. 7%(Torrey. et. al ,1987).
In Nepal people of 60+ years constitue the proportion of 6. 5 percentage of the total population with growth rate of 3. 79 percentage per year (CBS,2002) this increase,though the sigh of human development ,the problem of old aged dependent people is an emerging problem in most of developning countries in the world along with Nepal. Though it is not considered as a demographic problem until it exceeds 10% of the total population but the trend shows that it will reach the buttom-line of 10% proportion of elderly people soon. The following comparison disclosed the growth rate of total population versus growth of elderly population of 60+ and their proportion in total popualtion.
In 21th century the age of +65 are the focus point of the total world population. So, group of elderly people are became the demographic challenge to managed them properly. There are many studies done for addressing the elderly need and challenge in the world and many of the from western countries but in country like Nepal the systemic studies on “Determinants of Living Arrangements of elderly people” have not been carried out yet. So, this study is therefore carried out to fulfill this gap and to respond the following questions. • What is the socio-economic and demographic status of elderly people? • What are the major’s determents of living arrangement of elderly people? How the status of elderly differs in respect to gender? • What is the effect of income in living arrangement of elderly people? • How living arrangement varies with family types? • What is the impact of state ageing policy in gender? • What is the difference in the status of elderly people in rural and urban setting? • What are the health and psychological problems faced by elderly people? • Are there ethnicities, caste, gender, marital status, disability on elder’s impact on the living arrangement of elderly people? What policies and programs could be suggested to bring about desirable changes in the living arrangements of ageing population? 1. 3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this research is to explore the plight of the living arrangement of elderly people in Baidam (Pokhara sub-metropolitan city) and Sarankot VDC of Kaski district. The Specific objectives are as follows: 1) To identify the socio- demographic and economic characteristics of elderly people. 2) To access comparative differentials living arrangement of urban and rural elderly people. 3) To explore the psychological and health problem faced by elderly people in urban and rural setting. 1. 4 Hypotheses of the study For this study following hypothesis were made and description of the result is in sub unit 4. 4 Null Hypothesis 1: There is no association between state of economic dependency and living arrangement.
Null Hypothesis 2: There is no relation between the living arrangement and marital status of the elder people. Null Hypothesis3: Economic status of elderly do not determined the satisfaction with living arrangement. Null Hypothesis 4: There is no association between the family type and feeling of isolation. Null Hypothesis 5: There is no association between elderly family type and their health problem. 1. 5 Significance of Study The significant of the study were as follows: • This study has showed the clear picture of Socio-demographic data, elderly living arrangement and existing socio-economic and demographic characteristic of the elderly people living in rural and urban setting of Pokhara and surrounding rural area. This study has showed the gender differential of living arrangement of the elderly people living in Baidam (Pokhara) and surrounding rural setting (Sarangkot).
• This study has provided the useful guideline for Policy Makers, Planners and Social Workers to improve the socio-economic condition of elderly people living in Pokhara and surrounding rural areas. • This study has given insight of comparative study between urban Vs rural setting in Kaski district. • This study has played a very important role in sector of ageing because it aims to collect the information of elderly people living in Kaski district. • This is helpful to explore the health and psychological problems faced by elderly people. The research focuses on ageing issues and its social, economic, demographic implications.
Their social status, role determination starts from family level and community level. Socially, the generation gap is the major issue that focuses on balance between new generation and old generation. This “balance” is multidimensional question that includes culture, norms, values, beliefs system need. 1. 6 limitation of the Study This comparative study is regarding elderly people of Baidam (Pokhara) and Sarangkot VDC. So this study has given a deep insight into similar urban and rural setting. This study has the following limitation; • It is a micro level study covering only Baidam and Sarankot • This study only has given a general picture of rural and urban setting similar to these areas. This study may not be generalized at the national level due to small size and limitation of time and coverage. 1. 7 Organization of the study This study contains five chapters. Chapter I deal with the background of the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, limitations of the study, and operational definition of the terms. Chapter II presents the review of related literature, Chapter III clarifies research methodology. Chapter IV deals with result and discussion and Chapter V present finding, conclusion and recommendation.
And references, questioner schedule are also included at the last. 1. 8 Operational Definition of the Terms living Arrangement: | |An arrangement to allow people (or ideas) to coexist. Household living arrangements refers to | |Whether or not the person lives with another person or persons and, if so, whether or not he or she is related to that person or persons. | |In this study living arrangement covers the following aspects: | |Living Alone: Elderly people who live separately from living their family and don’t share same rooms and kitchen. | |Living with Spouse: Elderly people who are living with partner or married spouse. |Living with children: Elderly people who are living with their children(adult married son, daughter, daughter in law) | |Living with Grand Children: Elderly people who are living with their grand children(son/daughter) | |Living with Others: Elderly people who are living with outside from family members(relatives) | |Co-residence: living together, sharing a residence, as of an adult child with a parent/grandparent | |Ageing: The process of growing old. Ageing in human refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, mental and social | |deterioration.
| | | |Elder: A person aged 60 years or above. | | |Nuclear Family: A single person or a couple with dependent members. Dependent members are defined children younger than 18 years old or | |children older than 18 but being in full time education or serving the military not but married. | | | |Conjugal Family: Such family where elderly couple and single lives alone. | | | |Multigenerational Family: Total 2 to 3 generation, includes married children, and grandchildren, along with elderly parents living | |together. | | |psychological problems in this study refers to: | |Feeling of Isolation/loneliness | |Feeling of Insecurity | |Family Neglect | |Verbal Abuse towards elderly people from their family. | CHAPTER II Literature Review 2. 1 Theoretical Overview There was general agreement that all theories of ageing should be considered helpful as long as they contribute to overcoming problems and do not become self-fulfilling prophecies. It was felt that different theories can be pplied depending on the situation and the individual. Finally, the point was made that theories of ageing should be used not just to develop policy and promote positive attitudes to ageing but also to help understand the ageing process itself from different disciplinary points of view (Steevens, 1994).
2. 1. 1 The Disengagement Theory on Aging Disengagement theory, proposed by Davies is a sociological theory which originated in the United States in the 1960s. This theory proposes that ageing entails a gradual withdrawal or disengagement from personal relationships or society in general (Steevens, 1994).
This results in the marginalisation of older people in society.
However, this theory has been strongly criticised by researchers who found little evidence that older people disengage themselves from their surroundings. They found that while older people’s social relationships change, and they have fewer social relationships, these are often deeper relationships. Where disengagement does occur it may be due to other factors such as disability, poverty, retirement or widowhood. (Theories of ageing, 2009 cited from angelfire. com) Theory states that “aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal or disengagement, resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs to.
The theory claims that it is natural and acceptable for older adults withdraw from personal relationships and society as they became aged. This study tries to relate the situation of Nepali Elderly people to the theory of disengagement on ageing. 2. 1. 2 Attachment Theory: Research findings suggest that past and present secure attachment relationships function as a protective resource in later life and preliminary studies highlight the continuing salience of parents as attachment figures for older adults. Particular attention is given to the significance of attachment theory in thinking about the subjective experiences of people with dementia, for whom unwilling separation and disruption of attachment bonds can be common themes.
Research indicates the frequent occurrence of attachment behaviors and parent fixation amongst people with dementia living in residential care. Pre-morbid attachment style has been shown to interact with emotional and behavioral expression during the course of dementia (Browne & Shlosberg, 2006).
2. 1. 3 Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage Theory This theory, proposed by Derek and Price in 1960 . This theory elaborated by several researchers such as Dale Dannefer, inequalities have a tendency to become more pronounced throughout the aging process. A paradigm of this theory can be expressed in the adage “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer”.
Advantages and disadvantages in early life stages have a profound effect throughout the life span. However, advantages and disadvantages in middle adulthood have a direct influence on economic and health status in later life (wikipedia,Gerontology).
2. 1. 4 Biological Theory Biological theory attempts to explain the cause of the decline of the physical functions of the body, including the nervous system. Examples are the ‘wear and tear’ theory, decline in energy theory, cross linkage theory (ageing due to chemical changes in the body which stiffen the elasticity of the body tissue), programmed ageing (genetic) and ageing due to decrease in function of the immune system (Steevens, 1994).
2. . 5 DemographicTheory This theory States the elderly population increases either due to aging at the base or aging at the apex or both. Aging at the base results from a decrease in fertility; and then, subsequently, by a reduction in mortality among the elderly. 2. 1. 6 Age Stratification Theory Age stratification theory mentions that older adults had born during different time periods form cohorts that define “age strata”. There are two differences among strata: Chronological age and Historical experience. This theory makes two arguments. 1. Age is a mechanism for regulating behavior and as a result determines access to positions of power. 2.
Birth cohorts play an influential role in the process of social change. 2. 1. 7 The Social change Theory The social change theory states that as offspring become associated with non-family institutions, such as schools, and drift away from family circle, they are less likely to involve in traditional life styles. With this shift in daily life style, a family starts becoming individualistic and emotionally nucleated, which decreases the amount of time the children should have spent with their parents. Research has revealed that individuals who lived closer to schools, health services and business areas often favor putting their ageing parents in adult care and rehabilitation centers.
Nepali culture is to living with joint family and respecting elderly people but trend is moving towards secularization of the family as the social change theory says. 2. 1. 8 Activity Theory The activity theory of aging, originally constructed on the basis of American research and tested predominantly in the USA, asserts that an individual’s life satisfaction is directly related to his degree of social interaction or level of activity (Leanid. et. al, 2002).
Older adults’ self-concept depends on social interactions. In order for older adults to maintain morale in old age, substitutions must be made for lost roles. Examples of lost roles include retirement from a job or loss of a spouse.
The theory describes the psychosocial aging process, emphasizes the importance of ongoing social activity. This theory suggests that a person’s self-concept is related to the roles held by that person i. e. retiring may not be so harmful if the person actively maintains other roles, such as familial roles, recreational roles, volunteer & community roles. (Steevens, 1994).
2. 1. 9 Life-Course Theory According to this theory, we are all very familiar with is Erikson’s developmental stages, which here approaches maturity as a process. Within each stage the person faces a crisis or dilemma that the person must resolve to move forward to the next stage, or not resolve which results in incomplete development.
Hanighurst stated that for older people to progress they must meet the following tasks:Adjust to declining health & physical strength. Adjust to retirement & reduced income. Adjust to the death of a spouse or family members. Adjust to living arrangements different from what they are accustomed. Adjust to pleasures of aging i. e. increased leisure & playing with grandchildren (Theories of ageing, 2009 cited from anglefire. com).
2. 1. 10. The Exchange Theory The exchange theory felt that, as society puts a high Priority on productivity and economic activity, it was difficult to move away from that way of thinking and to value other forms of social exchange. Older people contribute to society in numerous ways.
For example, older people provide a lot of informal care which is of economic benefit to society. However this fails to acknowledge that older people have currencies other than money to barter within their exchange with other people. These include knowledge and experience (Steevens, 1994).
2. 1. 11 Social Stratification Theory Social stratification theory views old age as a deviant condition and labels it as such. Older people become the victims of the stereotype and see themselves in a negative way. This creates the false impression that older people are a homogeneous group. The social stratification theory divides people according to age and age is viewed as a way of explaining how people should behave.
If an older person does not behave in a certain way he/she might be considered as ‘mutton dressed as lamb’. In this way the individuality of older people is denied (Steevens, 1994).
2. 1. 12 Political Economy Theory Political economy theory argues that ageing is shaped by social arid economic factors and that the way many people experience ageing depends on the way society values older people. For example, if older people are seen as an economic burden in society this will cause intergenerational tensions and negative attitudes to ageing. Dr. Davies said that although these theories are negative they help us to understand how negative attitudes to ageing arise (Stevens, 1994).
2. 1. 13 Continuity Theory
Continuity theory views life as a continuous process in which each stage in life helps us to prepare for the next stage, is more positive. She explained that life can be viewed as a series of strands and at different times in life some strands are more important than others, for example, the work strand or the family strand. Coping with getting older is also a management process in which individuals need to manage changes in a positive and empowering way (Steevens, 1994).
From the above theoretical concept we can conclude that none of the theories proposed can claim sufficient evidence to account for the aging effects that are witnessed & experienced in humans.
We do know that longevity has increased and by that the possibility that the aging process has slowed. As molecules, cells and organ systems continue to live, they change. When it is considered in earlier life it is referred to & discussed as development and later in life when change is considered it is referred to as aging. 2. 2 Global and SARRC Countries Scenario on Ageing Population ageing is already advanced in Western industrialized countries, where the proportion aged 65 and older is now 14 % and this proportion is projected to double by 2050. In the United States, one of the comparatively younger developed counties, with 13 % of its people age 65 and older, we may be able to learn from the experience of ‘older ‘countries (UN, 1999).
Among the SARRC countries, Shree Lanka has the highest life expectancy followed by 72 years, Bhutan 66, India 63, Pakistan 63, Bangladesh 59 and Nepal is lowest life expectancy among SARRC countries followed by 58 years (UN, 2002).
During the period 1974-1999 the percentage of elderly living with their children in Greece reduced from 55 per cent to about 32 per cent. In this paper we examine determinants of the decrease in intergenerational co-residence among Greek elderly people and their adult children and its implications for economic well-being. We find that the main factor that has contributed to the change in the living arrangements has been the increase in the pension incomes.
Although income was the most important force driving the increase in the independent living among the elderly Greeks throughout the period under examination its contribution to the change reduced significantly during the 1990s. As the importance of incomes in accounting for changes in co-residence rates among the elderly reduces over time so the contribution of the unobserved year effect rises. This finding points to the role of changing preferences in determining intergenerational co-residence. Despite the substantial decrease in intergenerational co-residence we find that the family in Greece still plays a very significant role in protecting the poor elderly people (Karagiannak, 2005).
Living arrangements are generally studied as a dichotomous outcome – whether living alone or With others. The studies mentioned attempted to identify the factors responsible for the elderly living alone or in co-residence. Data from western countries show s that more than 60 per cent of the elderly aged 65 and above live either alone or with the spouse (Palloni, 2001).
Within countries there are no consistent differences in living arrangements according to education. It cannot be simply concluded that older persons with less education are more likely to live in traditional extended family households; indeed, in the developing countries, it is more often the reverse.
Considering the regional averages for countries with available data, living alone, living as a couple and living with non-relatives are the only arrangements for which the direction of the relationship with education is the same—higher for those with some education compared with those with no education— for all three regions. The average proportion living with children is higher among those with some education in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean and among those with no education in Asia (UNDESA, 2005).
Intergenerational co-residence has traditionally been a significant source of familial support for the elderly people. By co-residing with their adult children, the elderly can enjoy financial and social support, companionship and personal care (Mathews, 1987).
Population and housing censuses in countries of Europe and North America found that Living arrangements, in particular the relationships available within the household, are of crucial importance as determinants of older adults. Financial and social situation, the social support arrangements available to them, and the realized level of wellbeing or loneliness. (Jenny. et. al, 1990).
There are elderly widowed parents who would live in separate dwellings located close to their children. They would prefer to stay in their own homes and at the same time prefer that their children live close to them ,Remittances from children working abroad are assumed to improve economic support to their parents. Living with young grandchildren or ill relatives is more likely to represent a burden than a benefit (Domingo and Casterline, 1992).
The living arrangements of older people are usually an important determinant of their quality of life. They are particularly significant for poor elders in the developing world, where formal welfare systems are less extensive. Policy debates in developing countries often allege that extended families and cultural mores of respect for elders have been more resilient than in the West (Contreras de Lehr, 1989).
Elderly persons prefer to co-reside with their kin, especially with their spouse and children, and that elderly females are less likely than their male counter parts to live with a spouse (Chuks J. Mba, 2002).
Co residence of elderly persons with one of their dult children is prevalent in developing countries because of the negative correlation between levels of kin co residence and socio-economic development (Asis and colleagues, 1995).
Over the past two and a half decades, America’s elderly have chosen increasingly to live alone or only with their spouses. The marked shift away from extended family living has affected men and women from all age groups 65 and over, who are now much more likely to live by themselves or only with their spouses. (Congress of the US,1988) . The proportion of elderly unmarried women living alone in Europe had increased substantially during the period 1975-1990 in all the countries in his sample. As a result most elderly people now live alone or with a spouse in most European countries.
For Western and Northern European countries the proportion of elders living alone ranges from 75 to 95 percent (with the exception of Ireland and Austria where the percentage of elderly people living alone is about 60-70 percent. (Iacovou2000a, b; Van Solinge, 1994; Keilman, 1988; Kinsella, 1990) Most of older adults in the 43 developing countries studied here tend to live in large households, and they are likely to be living with an adult child, who is more likely to be male than female. However, there is substantial variation in living arrangements by gender and education, and several regional patterns exist. Estimates based on country averages indicate that nearly one in ten older adults’ lives alone, and the probability of living alone is greater for older women than men.
Women are much less likely to live with a spouse or to head the household, while a slightly greater proportion of older women than men live with adult children. Females are more likely than males to live alone and are less likely to live with a spouse or to head a household. Heading a household and living in a large household and with young children are more prevalent in Africa than elsewhere. Co residence with adult children is most common in Asia and least common in Africa. Co residence is more frequently with sons than with daughters in both Asia and Africa, but not in Latin America . Regional patterns include higher rates of co residence in Asia, where nearly two thirds of both men and women live with adult children. Although ates of co-residence are high in Africa, where nearly 50 percentages of older adults live with an adult child, the elderly in Africa are most likely to live alone, to be head of a household, and to live with adults who are not offspring or spouses. Household size for the elderly are lowest in the Latin American countries while at the same time older Latin American are the least likely to be living alone. This is the result of less variation in household size among countries in this region than Asia and Africa. A movement toward family nuclearization and a weakening of extended family links in conjunction with socio-economic development (Bongaarts, 2001).
Elderly living with and being financially and emotionally supported by adult children is regarded as a good eastern tradition. Japanese elders, for example, are more likely to live with their children and relatives than their counterparts in most western developed countries at the similar level of income (Palloni,2001).
In China, adult children being financially and emotionally responsible for elderly parents is written as a responsibility in the Elderly Rights and Security Law (Wang. et. al, 2000).
Older adults in Ghana live in a variety of household arrangements. The elderly men are more likely to be living in nuclear households, while older women are more likely to be living in extended family households.
Logistic regression analyses indicate that determinants of living with adult children and grandchildren differ by sex (Mba, C. J. 2007).
Rates of living alone among all age groups are typically higher in urban areas, particularly dense urban areas, which makes New York city a prime location for all the risks associated with such household arrangements. But living alone is not the same thing as being lonely or isolated (Michael. et. al, 2006) In India, older people are still cared for by their families. Living in old age homes is neither popular nor feasible Social scientists report that there is a general lowering of social status of elderly people in India. Increasingly, older people may be perceived as burdens due to their disability.
Almost 98% of elderly male and female of rural and urban lived with family (Indira, 1999).
Living arrangements for the elderly was not an issue a few decades ago in most developing countries, including India, because the elderly are expected to be cared for by the family. However, issues concerning household structure and support for older persons in developing countries are becoming increasingly important. Along with an ageing population these countries are also experiencing socio-economic and demographic changes. Since last few decades there has been a rise in economic growth, literacy levels, urbanisation and modernisation, women bearing fewer children and people living longer and healthier lives.
All this brought about significant changes in India. The effects of these trends on families, households, kin networks and subsequent support for older persons are complex and not well documented. It is generally accepted that the size and complexity of the households decrease along with industrialization and urbanization. In traditional rural societies families are often more extended than in modern urbanized societies where the independent nuclear family is predominant. (Panigrahi,2009).
The daily care and emotional support from children have a positive effect on the survival of oldest old, but there is no significant effect from economic support on survival (Zhang, 2002).
Study carried out in Bangladesh found, respondents’ present state of health is significantly allied with their age, level of education, monthly income, proper sanitation facilities and number of son or daughter, dwelling place and type of the family. In Bangladesh about 90% of the urban elderly males live alone and are married, whereas 89 percent of the rural elderly women living alone are widowed (Uddin, 2010).
2. 3 Empirical Studies in Nepal Due to modernization and the migration of the younger generation to foreign developed countries, the nuclear family and households of ‘elderly living alone’ are increasing in urban areas. Therefore, it can be said that building elderly homes alone are not the solution for the elderly (Shakya, 2007).
Elderly people also have to face economic and social difficulties. Nepalese society is in a phase of modernization.
The traditional joint family is slowly being replaced by nuclear family in urban areas. The caring of elderly population is a major problem. Because of this trend of nuclear family, the older members of family are being isolated. Old people long for love, proper nourishment, happiness and relaxing conversations from other family members. This system of nuclear family and busy lifestyle of people have secluded them from other family associates. There is modification in the cultural norms and traditional family support systems for elderly in Nepal have been placed under substantial strain. (Poudel, 2005).
Living arrangement are the integral aspects of inter-generational and intra-generational relationship.
Living arrangements are indicative of the companionship, the access to the needed support, and many other aspects of life including social and psychological satisfaction. The arrangements are also reflection of complex cultural, economic, historical and personal factors (Subedi, 1999).
The concept of joint family may provide some guarantee that elderly parents will receive support from their adult children. However, several studies show that joint family may not provide sufficient support for all needs. Social, economic and demographic developments have all caused changes at the individual, family and societal levels all of which influence the lives of elderly people.
The living arrangement of the elderly people of Nepal is contingent on their level of support . In particular, the availability of care from a spouse or child may be essential to the well –being of the very old or frail elderly. The elderly depend on their children, particularly sons, for support and security in their old age. 2. 3. 1 Social Status of Elderly People in Nepal. In Nepal, though only recently, ageing is considered as an economic problem; socially it is considered, since ancient time, the continued upgrading in social status. Higher the age of a person, more is his/her social status. Elderly male member of the family or the community automatically takes the role of head-ship in the family/community.
Almost all social and religious activities are guided as well as performed by hem. His views and words are taken as the rules and regulation to be followed by the family/community members. Also individuals who manage to survive more than 75 years of age are considered as those who have attained the godhood. In Newer society of Nepal, elderly persons are facilities as gods in attaining certain ages through three ceremonies called Janku. First ceremony called Bhim Ratharohan is conducted when a person attains the age of 77th year,7th month,7th day,7th hours,7th minute and 7th pal(lowest unit of Nepalese chronological time) and second ceremony is conducted at the age of 84 and third at the age of 90 years.
This shows the high respects shown by Nepalese towards their elderly persons. Considering the physiological aspects of ageing, Nepalese law have made provisions for protecting elderly persons from possible misuse of their physical and mental disabilities. Nepalese law prohibits making any property and financial transactions with elderly persons aged 75 years and above in absence of his/her near and dear ones. Also, there is a system of providing free foods and lodging to old persons who were discarded by their relatives. (examples: Pasupati Bridhasram, Tripurshowr temple and other religious places) (Singh, 2002).
Table 2. 1 Trend of Increasing Proportion of Old People. Year |Growth rate of elderly pop 60+ (%) |Proportion of elderly population(60+)|Population growth rate (%) | |1952/54 | |5. 0 |—- | |1961 |1. 79 |5. 2 |1. 65 | |1971 |2. 42 |5. 4 |2. 07 | |1981 |3. 26 |5. 7 |2. 66 | |1991 |2. 6 |5. 8 |2. 10 | |2001 |3. 79 |6. 5 |2. 24 | |2011 |3. 4 |9. 1(Living standard survey 2011,CBS) |1. 3 | Source: CBS,HMG/N2002 2. 3. 2 Societal Implication of Elderly in Nepal In Nepali tradition, sons are morally obligated to provide care and support to their parents. It is estimated that more than 80% of elderly in Nepal live with their children. Only 2. % of the elderly in Nepal are living with their daughters which may be due to the cultural taboos that prevent parents from living with married daughters (GCN, 2010).
Freezing cold costs lives of poor elderly Rukum. Mr Nar Bahadur Roka 68 of Sallegaon VDC near Khalanga died due to cold. Mr Roka was a labour making stone pebbles, complained of cold and pain in his heart at 3 a m in the morning and died after some time while he was in bed. Similar case was reported from Ambegudin VDC of Taplejung, where Mr Jas Bahadeur Limbu 70 died due to cold at 4 a m in the morning. In both the cases the elderly did not have warm clothing to protect from freezing cold during winter nights in the hill districts. (Nagarik. Jan 19, 2012).
Elderly Face Insult from their Own Offspring
Yamuna Aryal (Kafle) , Samacharpatra, 2012 Most of the elders of urban areas are troubled. Their life ends either in old age homes or in footpath. It has become a “normal” happening for elders who do not have anyone to look after them. The neglecting behavior of offspring towards older parent has been increasing in the society. Recognized as “Senior Citizen” at 60 an OAA provided at 70 Gorkhapatra Kathmandu, November 10, 2012 Sankalpa Nepal (NGO) organized a programme to solicit suggestions for addressing issues of the elderly. Speaking on the occasion, human right defenders and stakeholders pointed out that elderly face problems due to lack of law and order.
Honourable member of National Human Rights Commission Mr. Ramnagina Singh focused on the necessity to amend the present constitution, 2007 of Nepal for better ensuring the rights of senior citizens. President of Senior Citizen Service Society Mr. Nar Bahadur Khad voiced that the existing government policy is negatively discriminatory for the elderly. He also said that the system that recognizes one as “Senior Citizens” at 60 but gets OAA at 70 is wrong and the monthly Rs. 500 hundred is not sufficient OAA for the elderly. He demanded that the monthly Rs. 3 thousand should be provided by the government for the elderly as OAA. Elderly Abuse: Elderly woman victim of Domestic Violence Mrs.
Tara Basnet 65, resident of Pakhapani-15 VDC of Butwal has been forced to live a miserable life ever since her husband married the second wife. Mrs. Basnet, who is unable to walk due to Leprosy, has been facing violence from her own husband almost every day. She does not expect love but wishes that her husband does not torture her. Mr. Padam Basnet, husband of Mrs. Basnet has crossed his 70s. He is also a victim of leprosy. Because of the proper treatment received he is fit and fine. Mr. Padam married a Kali Sunar 55, who is from the same locality. (Gorkhapatra. June 4, 2012) Elderly Faced Difficulty in Collecting OAA Bhaktapur municipality has changed the procedure of distributing OAA from ward.
They have started distributing OAA from Nepal Bank at Surya Binayak of Bhaktapur, when the government came to know about the mis-utilization of OAA by bureaucrats. The procedure of collecting OAA through Banks has created difficulty among the elderly in Bhaktapur. 93 year old Mr. Sita Ram Prajapati reported, – “it is very difficult for us to stand in a queue for long to collect OAA”. They said that the government is not fair to older people. The previous procedure of distributing OAA from respective wards was far better. (Samacharpatra ,June 21, 2012) Source: cm, http://www. ageingnepal. org. np 2. 3. 3 Literacy of Elderly people
The literacy rate (those who can read and write) for aged 65+ years is found as 27. 0% for males and 4. 07 % for females and 47. 12% are found economically active with sex differential of 59. 7%for males and 34. 30% for females12. Among 65+ years aged person, 86. 46% of males and68. 34% of females are currently married, 10. 89% of males and 28. 19% of females are widowers /widows; 1. 43% of males and 1. 22% of females are singles (CBS, 2003).
2. 3. 4 Marital Status of the Elderly In 1961, only 73. 17% male and 32. 13% females were married, which increased to 88. 3% for male and 71. 7% for females in 20019. The lower proportion of married elderly women may be due to society’s strict prohibition of widow remarriage.
This prohibition is in addition to and exacerbated by the male tendency of marrying a younger woman. In Nepalese culture, widower remarriage is accepted. The proportion of never married elderly in Nepal is low, possibly due to the prevalent universal marriage system in that society. Many parents in that society believe they are responsible for the marriage of their offspring. Arranged marriages are common in Nepal. 2. 4 Madrid International plan of Action on Ageing (2002) The strategy it produced is simple. It is built around ten goals and ten principles, and it provides a framework to encapsulate and analyze policy action across all policy making bodies and levels. The goals are: • Income: Secure and adequate income for older people Health: Equitable, timely, affordable and accessible health services for older people • Housing: Affordable and appropriate housing options for older people • Transport: Affordable and accessible transport options for older people • Ageing in place: Older people feel “safe and secure” at home and can “age inplace” • Cultural diversity: A range of culturally appropriate services allows choices forolder people • Rural: Older people living in rural communities are not disadvantaged when Accessing services • Attitudes: People of all ages have positive attitudes to ageing and older people • Employment: Elimination of ageism and promotion of flexible work options • Opportunities: Increasing opportunities for personal growth and community participation. MIPAA commits governments to take action at all levels on three priority directions: I. Older persons and development. II. Advancing health and well-being into older age. III. Ensuring enabling and supportive environments for older people. Within Priority direction III: Issue 1, talks about Housing and the living environment
Housing and the surrounding environment are particularly important for older persons, inclusive of factors such as: accessibility and safety; the financial burden of maintaining a home; and the important emotional and psychological security of a home. It is recognized that good housing can promote good health and well-being. It is also important that older persons are provided, where possible, with an adequate choice of where they live, a factor that needs to be built into policies and programs. 2. 5 International and National Social Security Provisions The Bangladesh government currently pays 150 Taka (US$2. 58) per month to extremely poor people aged 57 and above living in rural areas (Willmore, 2003: 23; Gorman, 2004) .
The Chinese government actively develops social security systems of various forms, and priority is given to a special group of elderly people to be covered in the social security system in rural areas. These are elderly people who have lost the ability to work, who have no source of income, and who have no legal guardians whatsoever to support them, or their legal guardians do not have the ability to support them. They enjoy the state’s “five guarantees” system, which means that their food, clothing, housing, medical care and burial expenses are taken care of and subsidized by the government. (Country Report: Peoples Republic of China, 2007) . In Sri Lanka there are many social security schemes for elderly implemented by various agencies.
Out of all, Public Service Pension Scheme and the Employees Provident Fund scheme are the two major schemes providing social security for the Government and the private sector employees in their old age (GCN, 2010).
The government Nepal is providing Old–Age-Allowance (OAA) of Rs. 500 per month to people age 70 and above. The government provides Rs 500 per month for widow 60+. The allowances is managed by Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare and distributed through the local units of Ministry of Local Development at the village level 2. 6 Policy Context on Elderly People in Nepal 2. 6. 1 Legal Provisions The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2006 (Art. 3) has made a provision for separate Act, Rules and Regulations specially to protect the rights of elders. In accordance with the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (MIPAA) 2002, the government has already formulated and promulgated separate Acts, Rules and Regulations. The National Plan of Action, 2062 developed for senior citizens deals with various aspects such as economic and social security, health and nutrition, participation and involvement, education and entertainment and legal condition and reforms ( GCN,2010).
2. 6. 2. Senior Citizen Policy 2058 Up till 2002, there was no specific policy for older persons in Nepal. Senior Citizen Policy 2058 is the key policy document of the government towards elderly in the country.
It largely follows the working plan determined by the Vienna Conference and the United Nation Principles for Ageing. This policy has envisaged incorporating economic benefit, social security, health service facilities and honor, participation and involvement, and education as well as entertainment aspects to support the elderly people in having prestigious livelihood. The policy aims to enhance the respect and dignity of the elderly in their family, society and nation. It also determines to improve the potential of the elderly so that they continue to be active and productive in national development, and to create opportunities to assist them to continue to be self-reliant 2. 6. 3 National Plan of Action on Ageing 2062
Following the Madrid Plan of Action on Ageing, 2002, the Government of Nepal has formulated National Plan of Action on Ageing. This action plan identifies the elderly as one of its main target groups. Although this marks an initial step in the provision of care for the elderly, institutional efforts are at its minimum as family and community are encouraged or expected to provide care to the elderly. The principle is that the institutional support should be the last resort. This plan of action has attempted to include the various spheres like economic, social security, health and nutrition, participation and involvement, education and entertainment and legal of elders for their empowerment and well being.
It also aims at encouraging the provision of facilities for the elderly so as to ensure care and protection for them. Although the National Plan of Action on Ageing is a great step forward in preparing the Nepali society for a transition into an ageing society, one major issue that affects the welfare of the elderly is conspicuously absent from the Plan is monitoring system. 2. 6. 4. Senior Citizen Act, 2063 and Regulations 2065 The Government of Nepal enacted the Senior Citizen Act, 2006 to ensure the social, economic and human rights of the elderly citizens. The purpose of the Act is to protect and provide the social security of old age citizens.
This act also ensures to nourishment and health care of old age; to maintain their dignity; ensuring their property and have right for use of their property; special facilities and exemption of transportation fair for old age. The Senior Citizens Regulations 2065 provides guidelines for the effective implementation of the Senior Citizen Act. It provides the detailed information on how to implement the policy and programs for the socio-economic well-beings for elders and the healthy ageing. It also provides the detailed procedures to be fulfilled to establish and run geriatric homes in the country. According to the regulation, specific terms and conditions must be considered to run Old Age Homes, Day Care Centers and Geriatric Centers Supreme Court Orders to give Health Facilities to the Elderly | |The Supreme Court of Nepal has given a Mandamus (supreme order) to the Government of Nepal (GoN) to implement the Senior Citizens Act, 2006 | |regarding 50% discount on health facilities for the senior citizens. Senior citizens of Nepal have been forced to pay for the health | |facilities though the Act has provision to provide 50% discount on health service cost for senior citizens (Kantipur,June 7, 2012 Kathmandu) | 2. 7 Factor Influencing/Determinants of Living Arrangement of Elderly People 2. 7. 1 Demographic Determinants of Living Arrangements of the Elderly The major demographic factors considered here that determine the living arrangements of the elderly in Kaski district are age, sex, marital status. Age and Living Arrangements
Studies have shown that age of the elderly was one of the important determinants of living arrangements. For the present analysis, the age of the elderly has been categorized as younger old, older old and oldest old, in the age groups of 60-69, 70-79 and 80 and above, respectively Gender and Living Arrangements The gender of the elderly was another important demographic indicator that determined their living arrangements. Arrangements Nevertheless, it may be quite possible in the Nepali context, because traditionally, women were not expected to live alone. Marital Status As in all populations of the world, females live longer than males (United Nations, 1973).
There is relationship between marital status and living arrangements.
The marital status of the elderly was divided into four categories: never married, currently married, widowed, and divorced/separated. 2. 7. 2 Socio-Economic Determinants of Living Arrangements of Elderly The socio-economic and cultural factors have the strongest impact on the living arrangement s of the elderly in any part of the world. The major socio-economic variables considered for the analysis will be place of residence, education, occupation, caste and income of the elderly. Other variables like monthly expenditure pattern, land ownership, state of economic independence and number of dependants will be taken as proxy variables that determine the economic status of the elderly. Urban/rural residence and Living Arrangements
There are several factors that could lead to an urban/rural difference in the levels of co residence among the older population. Older persons in rural areas are somehow better connected with an extended family: they are rather consistent with the idea that different forces predominate in different areas. In some cases, older persons in urban areas are more likely to live independently than are their rural counterparts (UNDESA, 2005).
Economic Factors Economic factor which is a major impact of desired Living arrangement of elderly people. To increase economic and medical security level is a major measure to increase the level of quality of life for the elderly. Living condition, Economic situation and Health status Elderly people have to live with their offspring.
Some aged people wish to live with their offspring, but have to live independently because of some realistic reasons. Supply and demand of elder care are not in balance. Modernization It is threatening the role of the extended family, there are not as yet any non- familial institutions to take over this responsibility, as is the case in developed countries. In case of developing countries modernization effect on family system that leads to produced western family system. It is generally believed that as societies modernize and urbanize the size and complexity of households and families reduce, transforming from the extended to the nuclear type (Thomas and Price 1999).
2. 8 Summary
The literature has suggested that so many socio-economic and demographic factors are directly influence the living arrangement of elderly people. In developed countries like U. K, U. S. A and European countries there is tradition of elderly living alone or living with spouse and living old age house but Asian countries like Japan, India, and Nepal there still tradition of elderly living with children. Elderly people are increasing world widely including Nepal CBS shows 6. 5%of elderly population among total population of Nepal (CBS, 2001).
In Nepali tradition, sons are morally obligated to provide care and support to their parents, there is practice of elderly living in joint family but several studies show that joint family may not provide sufficient support for all needs.
In recent time ageing population are burden or asserts of state it is very difficult to identify. Especially in Asian countries, elderly are considered as an asserts as they are real persevered of native culture, custom and values. Co residence with adult children is common in Asia is more frequently with sons than in daughter . This study support the above literature that 48. 2 percent of elderly were living with their sons in the study area. The study carried out by Uddin, 2010 in Bangladesh found urban elderly living alone more than rural counterparts. This study reflects the similar figure that 31. 6 percent of elderly were living with conjugal family out of them 21. 1 percent of Baidam and 10. 5 percent of Sarangkot.
Likewise these studies also support older persons in urban are more likely to live independently than their counterparts. This study also reflects Nepal demographic figure that elderly female population were increasing, in the study area 55. 3 percent were female and 40. 4 percent of elderly were in widowed status. Disengagement theory on ageing and the finding of this study reflects that ageing is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal and decreased interaction between ageing persons and others. Study shows over 60 percent of elderly people were feeling of social isolation among them 24. 6 percent of elderly were living in conjugal family. 2. 9 Conceptual Framework Based on the above literature review following conceptual framework has been derived.
There are so many socio- economic factors such as education of children, sex, caste, family structure, income ,household head, property ownership, marital status, employment status, place of residence, household size etc. directly or indirectly influence the living arrangement of elderly people. Elderly status in Nepal is directly influenced by living arrangement in other hand is affected by the socio-economic status and societal traditions. Generation of elderly Nepali want shelter in the extend family where they feel secure socially, economically and psychologically. However, the tradition family system is fast disappearing, even in rural areas.
With modernization of the country, old values are being replaced by individualism. Elderly people are increasing faster in the developing countries. Nepalese older women are facing many problems that of being old, of being poor and of being women which are the result of our social values. [pic]Figure 1: Conceptual-Analytical Framework CHAPTER III Research Methodology RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Research Site and Population Being a comparative nature, the study was conducted in Pokhara and Sarangkot VDC . A brief introduction of the study sites are presented here. 3. 1. 1 Pokhara Sub-metropolitan City (Baidam)
Pokhara Sub-Metropolitan City lies in Between 83? 58’30” East to 80? 02’30” East Longitude and 28? 10′ north to 28? 16′ north latitude in the world map. Pokhara Valley floor is 123 Km?. Pokhara sub-metropolitan city covers an area of 55. 66 sq. km and covers 2. 7 percent area of the district and 0. 04% area of the nation. The 1991 census records the population of Pokhara to be 95,286 while according to the 2001 census, the population of Pokhara was 156,312 and the projection of population to 2009 estimated the population of Pokhara to be 232,254. The annual population growth rate of Pokhara sub-metropolitan city was found to be 5. 07%. And average family size of Pokhara sub-metropolis is 6. and number of household(HH) 57,305(2001) and total population of Pokhara sub-metropolis is now 255,465 with this population male population consists 126,238 and female are 129,227 and number of household are 68,236(HH)(2011 census).
The Pokhara sub-metropolitan city shares its border with lekhnath municipality, Kahun and Arwa village development committees in the west, Armala, Chhahrepani, Lamachaur,and Hemja VDCs in the north and Kristi Nachn Chaur, Nirmal Pokhari and Bharat Pokhari, Saran coat VDCs in the south. The Pokhara sub-metropolitan city is divided into 18 wards. (PSM, 2069).
Among the 18 wards of the Pokhara metropolis, Baidam is touristic areas lays in ward no 6 with total population 10,663 among them female are 4,882 and male 5781. Total number of household in Baidam are 2,604. Population growth rate of Baidam 6. 59% and total area of Baidam is 2. sq. Km. Neighbors ward of Baidam are ward no 5, 7, and 17. The major groups consists of Khas (Brahmin, Chhetri,Thakuri &Dalits), Gurung, Magar, Newar, Thakali. Major occupations of this area are traditional, foreign employment, business and service. (Ward profile Baidam, 2069).
3. 1. 2 Sarangkot VDC Sarankot is most important VDC of Kaski district according to touristic purpose. In the world map it lays 28. 21 to 28. 26 in north altitude and 83. 91 to84. 94 degree in east longitude. It covers an area of 16. 25 sq. K. m. There are 9 wards in Sarankot VDC. Total inhabitants of Sarankot VDC are 6612 among them 3116 (47. 12) are male and 3446 (52. 8%) are female (2001).
In 2011 census recorded total population of Sarangkot VDC are 8354 among them 3899 male and 4455 female population and total no of household are 2080(HH) . Different ethnicities’ people live in this VDC but major groups are Brahmin, Gurung, Newar, Chhetri,Damai and Sarki. Most of the people have Hindu religion and agricultural, business, foreign employment if major occupation. Total elderly population 60+ of Sarankot VDC are 683 . Among the total elderly population of Sarankot VDC only ward no 6 and 7 are purposely selected. Total elderly population 60+aged of 6 and 7 wards become 168. 3. 2 Rational for the Selecting Study Sites
The present study has find out the socio-economic status and living arrangement of elderly in rural and urban setting of Kaski district. (Baidam and Sarangkot VDC).
Pokhara Metropolitan city-6 Baidam, a centre of touristic promoted area is an area with an urban setting is selected for the study due to its heterogeneity of population. Somehow this area is well decorated with infrastructure . It is assumed that this area is fruitful to understand ageing issues of urban elderly. Likewise ward no 6 and 7 of Sarankot VDC are also neighboring area to Baidam and also influenced by tourism too. These wards are selected to understand aging issues of rural elderly. 3. 3 Universe and Sample
Total elderly population of both study sites were the universe of the study i. e. 300 elderly people of Baidam and 168 of ward no 6 and 7 of Sarangkot VDC . Out of total 468 universes 114 were the sample of this study which represents 24% of the total population of both study sites. Fig. 3. 1 Map of Study Areas [pic] 3. 4 Sampling Method Out of 468 elderly people of study areas (from Baidam 300 and from Methalang(6) and Gyarjati(7) are 168), 24% of the total population which is 114 sample sizes was selected (krejcie and Morgn, 1970).
Elderly were selected by purposive sampling method (ward profile, 2069) Table 3. 1 Total Population and Sample Size of the Study Area Sample Area |Pokhara-6,Baidam |Sarangkot VDC,6 & 7 Wards |Total | |Elderly Population |300 |168 |468 | |At 8% error |73 |41 |114 | |(95%confident level) | | |(24% of total | | | | |population) | Source: VDC profile, Sarankot and Ward profile Baidam By using method of Sample size determination, sample size is determined n=114 at 95% confident level with e=0. 8degree of error. (See Appendix -5) 3. 5 Nature of Data and Data Collection Procedure This study was mainly based on qualitative data but quantitative data were collected in reference to demographic and economic indicators. Before leaving to fieldwork for this study 10% of the sample was selected for the pre-test. Multiple tools of research was used in this regards, hence, primary data was produced by an intensive field work of about one month by two individuals. In-depth interview with elderly people was conducted through questionnaire schedule. Secondary data were employed from different published and unpublished reliable and valid sources.
Furthermore a standardized checklist was developed for focus Group discussion (check list of FGD and name of the FGD participants) and the Name of Key Informants Interviewer were presented in Appendix-2, 3 and 4. FGD and KII were conducted separately in Pokhara Metropolitan city-6, Baidam and Sarankot VDC. 3. 6 Methods and Techniques of Data Analysis All the collected data were analyzed both qualitatively as well quantitatively as per their nature. The information collected from the field has been coded, tabulated and was entered into the computer running the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS16. 0) and Ms Excel. Simple statistical tools such as percentage, ratio including charts, frequency table, cross tabulation as well figure was used to analyze the data under uitable headings to make them more reflective and to understand easily. Necessary tables were prepared and inserted under suitable headings. chi square test has been used to observed the association of dependent variable to each independent variables. Chi-square test is a non parametric test which is used when data are in frequencies such as in number of responses in two or more categories. It is used for test of proportion, test of association or independent and test of goodness of fit. Here chi-square test is used for test of association. CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION In this chapter the general discussion is carried out for the consistency of the objectives and data received from the field survey.
The discussion is carried out in major three groups considering the factors related to the objectives and hypothesis. Collected data are analysis in two major sectors under univariate and bivariate analysis. In univariate analysis the percentage analysis of both dependent (living arrangement of elderly people) and all independent variables have been carried out individually. In bivariate analysis ,first of all cross tabulation of dependent and independent variables has been done then by using the chi square test the significance of association between dependent and independent variables have been observed. 4. 1 Socio -Demographic and Economic Status of the Respondents
Socio- economic and demographic variables like age, gender, marital status ,no of children, caste, religion, educational level, family type, occupation, and economic dependency, family income, no of person’s below15 and above 60 years were analysized. Some selected socio-economic and demographic features of this study area were follows: 4. 1. 1 Social Status Some selected social features of this study area were follows. According to table 4. 1 among the 114 respondent, the majority of the respondents were Brahmins and Chhetries covers 62. 3 percent, Dalit covers 20. 2 percent and minimum percent were Janajati followed by 13. 2 percent. There were majority of Bramins and Chhetries in both study sites followed by 37. 7 and 24. percent in Baidam and Sarangkot respectively than after Dalit,as Dalits are considered a low caste and so called untouchable. They are being the victim caste based discrimination.