October 31st October 2011
Assignment: ‘‘Describe the Personality of a famous Caribbean person from the perspective of two theories discussed in this course (not trait theory) and then conclude with your own impression of the adequacy of those two theories’ explanation of the individual’s personality.’’
Damian Marley was conceived on July 21, 1978, in Jamaica to reggae Icon Bob Marley and 1976 Miss World, Cindy Breakspeare. Damian grew up in the luxurious areas of Uptown Kingston and as a teenager; Damian performed with his close friends the Shepherds, but worked with his older brother Stephen Marley on his first album, “Mr. Marley.” Although Damian’s commercial breakthrough did not come until the 2004 single “Welcome to Jamrock.” He’s so far won two Grammy awards and currently lives in Miami, Florida. Marley has a great compassion for humanity and he wants to dedicate himself to improving masses. This Marley is self proclaimed as mentally healthy and with having a big heart. He is better when dealing with the trials of many than the troubles of a single person. Damian is more capable of working on the grand scale, addressing the needs of society, than on a one-to-one basis. Marley is kind and sympathetic, helpful and compassionate. (2011, Biography.com.).
Behind the controlled and calm facade, he is sensitive, venerable and emotional. Damian Marley tends to see himself as a guardian of society, a benevolent leader, guiding and directing his community toward a better world. Damian prefers creative, original, and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression. Traits include: imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, and impractical. Example professions include: artist, musician, and writer. Damian according to close friends has the kind of stature that pulls people to him or repels them intensely. Some are jealous of Damian and may seek to belittle him.
The title of my chosen song is called Patience by Damian Marley Featuring Nas. I chose this poem because of its spiritual meaning and because it represents what our world has turned into. Even though its six years old, and the world has changed a lot since then, they made a very precise prediction of what the condition of our economy will be today. The poem was written by Nas and Damian Marley ...
Firstly using Psychoanalytic theory, as devised by Sigmund Freud, We can better understand and begin to explain Damian’s personality on the basis of unconscious mental forces. Freud stressed on the importance of the unconscious conflict being the final determinant of behaviour. In order to appreciate how this is we must have knowledge of the psychoanalytic theory itself.
The psychoanalytic theory is an aid in the explanation of an individual’s personality. Sigmund Freud was expanded upon by another theorist known as Erik Erikson who stressed on the weight of growth throughout one’s lifespan. In an effort to better explain the psychoanalytic theory we should take into account that Personality can be defined as an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling,(Charles S.Carver, Michael Scheier) and acting and that the term conscious is used by Freud in the same way. Freud stated that we must first understand his view of how the mind is made up of numerous structures, some of which are unconscious. Freud also argued that as we have impulses that cause us anxiety; our personality develops defence mechanisms to protect against anxiety.
According to Freud, the mind can be divided into two main parts, the conscious mind, including everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the preconscious.
The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences (David B. Stevenson ’96, Brown University).
HISTORY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS: HOW IT AFFECT PERSONALITY M aranda Leggett Theories of Personality January 31, 2001 MWF 12: 00 - 1: 00 pm For years many have wondered what is it that shapes personality. The true question is, "What is psychology." This definition if broad and in varies from culture to the social setting. With the though of this does Cattell's definition stand true. Personality is that ...
Freud went on by saying, the ego is an aspect of the subject that emerges from the id the biological, Inherited, unconscious source of sexual drives, instincts, and irrational impulses. The ego develops out of the id’s relations with the external world. It is produced from the non-biological (social and familial) forces brought to bear on one’s biological development and functions as an intermediary between the demands of the id and the external world. Thus, the ego can be thought of as a variable aspect of the subject constructed as a system of beliefs that organize one’s dealings with the internal and external demands of life according to certain laws referred to by Freud as secondary process. It reconciles the biological, instinctual demands and drives (both unifying and destructive in nature) of the id (governed by primary process) with the socially determined constraints of the super-ego (internalized rules placing limits on the a persons satisfactions and pleasures) and the demands of reality. Clinical psychologist Don Bannister has described Freud’s position on the human personality as being “…basically a battlefield. He is a dark-cellar in which a well-bred spinster lady (the superego) and a sex-crazed monkey (the id) are forever engaged in mortal combat, the struggle being refereed by a rather nervous bank clerk (the ego).”
But what does all this have to do with Damian Marley. Well if we look deeper we can see that the healthy, mature ego in Damian’s case translates the demands of both the id and the super-ego into terms which allow admission of them without destruction. Thus, constructive acceptance and transformation of the demands made by both the id and the super-ego are techniques of the ego and essential elements of mental health.
Because Damian is sensitive, venerable and emotional behind the controlled and calm facade, “defense mechanisms,” or ways that we protect ourselves from things that we don’t want to think about or deal with, now comes to mind. The term got its start in psychoanalytic therapy, but it has slowly worked its way into everyday language. Think of the last time you referred to someone as being “in denial” or accused someone of “rationalizing.” Both of these examples refer to a type of defence mechanism. It is possible that Damian may have Reality anxiety; this Freud says is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid the threatening object. Perhaps in Damian’s case Fear of showing his softer side could be because he does not want it to be seen as weakness. Which self proclaimed ‘‘benevolent leader’’ would?
The id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. The id houses the biological urges such as to eat, sleep, defecate, copulate, that energize human behavior. The id operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification of its urges. The id engages in primary process thinking which is primitive, illogical, ...
Interestingly enough the psychoanalytic theory is not the only theory on how personalities are formed. Behaviorists such as B. F. Skinner explain personality in terms of the effects external stimuli have on behaviour rather than internal thoughts and motivations. It was a radical shift away from Freudian philosophy and it gave rise to the nature nurture argument. There now exists a model which emphasizes the mutual interaction of the person or “the organism” with its environment, Human behavior is learned, thus all behavior can be unlearned and new behaviors learned in its place. Behaviorism is concerned primarily with the observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. Therefore when behaviours become unacceptable, they can be unlearned. Behaviorism views development as a continuous process in which children play a relatively passive role, as passive as a dry sponge soaking up water. It is also a general approach that is used in a variety of settings including both clinical and educational. Freud’s theory deals with more of an internal explanation yet Skinner is suggesting a more external approach.
‘’Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select — doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.’’(John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930).
... to factors external to the individual. The most influential proponents of the behavioural approach were Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) who investigated classical conditioning, John ... al. , 1991. Predicting dishonest actions using the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 25, 285-301. BLACKWELL, R. , et al. , 2001. ...
This further reiterates that Personality could be moulded. Thus Ivan Pavlov another noteworthy influence could begin experimenting around his classical conditioning experiments involving dogs. These physiological studies led him to discover the foundation of behaviorism as well as classical conditioning. J.B. Watson believed that the social environment conditioned the personality and its behavior. He studied the respondent conditioning associated with various stimuli. Conditioning from the social environment is then stored in the unconscious memory throughout one’s life. E.L. Thorndike (Reber, 1985) followed and formulated the “Law of Effect” which says that reward strengthens responses and failure to reward weakens them. Thorndike, and later B.F. Skinner, continued to study how these consequences, e.g., reward or lack of reward, influenced behavior over time. This conditioning is termed operant conditioning. Operant conditioning and unconscious memories are the primary elements in a behavioral explanation of creativity.
Because Mr Marley prefers creative, original, and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression. We can see how the environment he grew up in influenced and moulded his personality. Growing up around and in a very artistic and relatively safe environment could be the possible explanation to his uncanny personality. Because the uncanny is familiar, yet strange, it often creates cognitive dissonance within the experiencing subject due to the paradoxical nature of being attracted to, yet repulsed by an object at the same time. This cognitive dissonance often leads to an outright rejection of the object, as one would rather reject than rationalize. This could explain the fact that some people are jealous of Damian and seek to belittle him whiles others entirely adore and admire him.
In conclusion we can see that not any one theory is necessarily right or wrong, but we come to terms with the fact that personality is majorly dynamic. Both External and internal factors influence our personalities differently. However, in order to fully understand one ‘s personality and why it is like that, we need to open our minds to the all determining factors that affect the development of personality. In my opinion, personality is a huge tree (the person) with a cluster of branches. These branches can be altered by cutting them and wear and tear, (external factors) but the tree is also affected by the water which is soaked up by the roots helps nourish the tree to be healthy unhealthy (internal factors).
Discuss the factors likely to influence current and future patterns of health in the UK There are many factors that are likely to influence current health and could carry on influencing patterns of health in the UK. Some of the factors that could this are: * Socio-economic * Environmental * Genetic * Lifestyle Socio-economic Factors There are many socio-economic factors that are likely to ...
By this parable we can see that the external and internal factors do not work against each other or for each other but rather they run parallel aiming at the same goal of a fully formed personality.
Damian Marley. (2011). Biography.com. Retrieved 02:47, Oct 11, 2011 fromhttp://www.biography.com/people/damian-marley-297416
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