Eng 341: History of English Language Teaching
Topic: The Appropriate teaching method for the Students of Primary School in Bangladesh
A.T.M Sajedul Huq
Department of English and Humanities
University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh
Department of English and Humanities
University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh
Date of submission: 29.12.2013
The Appropriate Teaching Method for the Students of Primary School in Bangladesh
As a student of English department, I have got an opportunity from my respective teacher, A.T.M Sajedul Huq sir to write an article on “The Appropriate Teaching Method for the Students of Primary School in Bangladesh”. As I am a Bangladeshi student and also I am the future teacher of Bangladeshi students, so I have the idea already that which teaching method is actually effective for the learners of Bangladesh? CLT is one of most effective methods in achieving communicative competence and may be one of the most popular and widely used methods in Bangladesh. So I think CLT is that particular method that is the appropriate method for the students of primary school.
What is CLT?
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Unlike the audio-lingual method of language teaching, which relies on repetition and drills, the communicative approach can leave students in expectation as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will contrast according to their reactions and responses. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students’ motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics.
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Benefits of communicative linguistic Teaching:
* Effective teaching methods.
* Create welcoming environment.
* Easy to motivate the students for study.
* Without memorizing students can learn quickly.
* Maintain more creative approach to teaching.
* Help to develop fluency and accuracy in language.
So, as a future teacher I will maintain CLT as an appropriate method for the students of primary schools.
What are some examples of communicative exercises?
In a communicative classroom for beginners, the teacher might begin by passing out cards, each with a different name printed on it. The teacher then proceeds to model an exchange of introductions in the target language.
For example using a combination of the target language and gestures, the teacher conveys the task at hand, and gets the students to introduce themselves and ask their classmates for information. They are responding in English to a question in English. They do not know the answers beforehand, as they are each holding cards with their new identities written on them; hence, there is an authentic exchange of in sequence.
Later during the class, as a reinforcement listening exercise, the students might hear a recorded exchange between two English freshmen meeting each other for the first time at the restaurant. Then the teacher might explain, in English, the differences among English greetings in various social situations. Finally, the teacher will explain some of the grammar points and structures used.
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Some basic activities that can be used in CLT classes:
In CLT class, activities are often used to practice real life situations involving social interaction and therefore a high level of social and functional language should be expected and also activities should involved real communication carrying out meaningful tasks, and using language which is meaningful to the learners. According to Clark & Silberstein, ‘Classroom activities should parallel the ‘real world’ as closely as possible. Since language is a tool of communication, methods, and materials should concentrate on the message and not the medium. The purposes of reading should be the same in class as they are in real life’
Now we will see the classroom activities that can be use in CLT classes:
* Mechanical practice: A prohibited practice activity which students can successfully carry out without necessarily understanding the language they are using. e.g. repetition drills, substitution drills etc.
* Meaningful practice: An activity where language control is still provided but where students are required to make meaningful choices when carrying out practice e.g. Given a street map, students are asked questions (e.g. Where is the book shop?, Where is the cafe?
* Communicative practice: Activities where practice in using language within a real communicative context is the focus, where real information is exchanged, and where the language used is not totally predictable, e.g. Students might have to draw a map of their neighborhood and answer questions about the location of different places in their neighborhood.
• Aim: to give the learners fluent control over linguistic forms, so the learners will produce language which is acceptable
• Function: to prepare the learner for later communication. The teacher may begin the teaching with a communicative activity
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• Pre-communicative activities: drills, question-and-answer practice.
• Aims: (a) to provide ‘whole-task practice’
(b) to improve motivation
(c) to permit natural learning
(d) to create a context which supports learning
• Functional communication activities: comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and differences, following directions, discovering missing features in a map or picture. There can be also a Jigsaw Reading which will be like this:
Students are in pairs to start with but later will form groups of four and then different groups of four, so the teacher needs to mentally or graphically divide the students into groups of eight. Each pair is given a piece of English to read. Each pair of the group of eight has a different passage, so there are a total of four different passages. The pair reads their passage together, checks any unknown words and tries to remember the main points (not memories the passage).
Each pair then turns their paper face down and tries to recall in English with their partner the main points. They are allowed to check their paper once more before all the papers are collected by the teacher. The pairs are put into groups of four. Each pair tells their new partner-pair about what they read. If some groups finish quickly they should try to recall their partner-pair’s information. The pairs then form a new group of four with a new partner-pair. The new group of four now knows a total of four pieces of information. Each pair tells their new partner-pair their own information plus the information of their previous partner-pair. The logistics are tricky but worth the time taken to set up the activity
• Social interaction activities: conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role plays, simulations, debates. For example in role plays, Practice functional situation such as ordering in a restaurant, booking a hotel room, and visiting a doctor by using role plays. In pairs, assign roles and allow some time to think about what they will need to say. A couple of minutes is sufficient. This should be thinking time not writing time. Have them act out the role play, changing roles when finished. The teacher should monitor carefully, noting where problems have occurred and where new language is needed by the students. Write this up on the board and point it out to the students. Change partners and practice again. Repeat once more if time allows. This action allows students to draw on their personal experience of these situations in their own country. It focuses on meaning and effective communication as the students must just achieve their goal without focusing on accuracy. There is a dialogue but it is not memorized and the function is the focus. The students can see how this would be useful outside the classroom, both when visiting another country.
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Start the activity in pairs. Students are given a target time, e.g. 3 minutes in which to talk about the given topic. They must continue talking until the 3 minutes is over. Assign students as A or B within pairs. Ask all the A students to stand and move one place so everyone has a new partner. Increase the time to 4 minutes and repeat the activity. Continue this four or five times or 11 even more, each time increasing by one minute or increasing every other time by one minute. Higher levels can have longer times, and for all levels, as the weeks go by, the starting time can gradually increase. This activity assumes that learning will take place by interacting in the target language. As the students talk about the topic for increasing lengths of time and interact with different people, they will get fresh ideas for questions they can ask and will pick up new vocabulary from their different partners. Students’ own personal experiences are important elements as the students are often talking about themselves or talking about the topic with relevance to themselves, they are exchanging real information and are usually authentically interested in what their partner is telling them.
The teacher has to assume the role of a facilitator or monitor, rather than simply being the model for correct speech and the one with the primary responsibility of making students produce plenty of error-free sentences. The teacher has to develop a different view of student’s errors and his/her own role in facilitating language learning. Making it short we can say teachers should be with below characteristics;
School activities are very important for the students and for the school. For the students, because they gain new skills and motivation. It’s a real chance for them to enjoy school and choose to do something they are really interested and passionate about, and therefore their motivation for learning and their motivation for their teachers and the school increase. It makes them relate ...
* To act as a resource
* To be an organizer of resources
* To be a motivator
* To be a counselor
* To be a guide
* To be an analyst
* To be a researcher
Class Participation Grades:
In classes of up to about 40 students it is possible to give class participation scores to all students for every lesson. These scores are added up at the end of the course and form one component of the course grade. To make time for giving these grades, for the final 20 minutes of class, the students can write a dialogue or a short passage about the lesson topic. This helps to consolidate what they have learned, forms a basis for revision for the speaking test, and gives the teacher enough time to call the students one by one, and give them their score. Basing class scores on effort rather than ability is also more motivating. The weaker students see that as long as they try hard they can get a high score and this will keep them motivated throughout the course.
There must be some role of learners also towards their teachers. Learners have to participate in classroom activities that are based on a cooperative rather than in a distinctive approach to learning. Students have to become relaxed with listening to their peers in pair or group work tasks, rather than relying on the teachers for a model.
Student’s feedback is the most essential thing in CLT. An argument used sometimes against using CLT methods is that students don’t like it, or students expect the teacher to stand at the front and teach them in a traditional way. Students may expect the teacher to stand at the front and teach them. They may also expect to be bored and expect to not learn anything, and to find the lesson pointless and of no value to them. This doesn’t mean teachers have to meet these expectations. This author has had extremely positive feedback from the students about the class rules, the class scoring system and the types of activities.
Communicative Language Teaching can be used successfully with the students who may have had negative experiences of English, and who may not like English. Although there are many pitfalls to introducing communicative activities, these can be overcome through establishing class rules which are enforced by a class participation scoring system. This scoring system also serves to increase motivation even among weaker students. So according to my observation Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the best method that can be used in Primary level of the education in Bangladesh.
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