Conflict is one of the ‘defining features of the modern world’ and from new perspective media has some influence role in resolution or increase violence in it (Puddephatt, 2006:4).
This piece of work is going to analyze and evaluate what is the role of the media in the international conflicts. Media is the most basic informant about the conflicts in the world. Only because of the information systems people have the representation and the image about what occurs in the modern world.
Richard Keeble believed that the influence of the media to audience could have an enormous effect, which even can change minds of nations (Allan and Zelizer, 2004:43).
mass media can be considered as ‘image’ of the conflict, which often plays a key role in its exemplification by presenting the information to the people around the globe. Task of this research is to investigate what influences media can put on the course of various conflicts, and what effects it can leave behind its description of certain disputed actions to audience of different nations.
Furthermore, media as an important actor in representing facts can take two different and opposed forms in picturing conflicts. According to Puddephatt (2006:4) either the media takes an active part in the conflict and has responsibility for increased violence, or stays independent and out of the conflict, thereby contributing to the resolution of conflict and alleviation of violence. Thus, the question that will be put in the center of the investigation: “Are the media a mouth peace or a watch dog in reporting on international conflicts; and how media reports of conflicts affect the audience? Summary of the piece: To specify investigation of such a topic, the research will consider attention to three case studies, according to which the role of the media in international conflict will be explained, analyzed and evaluated. Vietnam War, Falklands conflict and Gulf War are three case studies, according to which the study of work would be explained. Vietnam War, Falklands conflict and Gulf War are three case studies, which represent different examples of the media coverage of the conflict.
The Essay on How did war world 1 impact women
There are all types of information including lesson plans, articles and news. BBC origin is a British Broadcasting Corporation. Established in 1922,London. The founders of BBC are John Reith and George Villers. BBC purpose is to “enrich peopleʼs lives with programs and services that inform, educate and entertain.” The values of the source are that it has beneﬁts of hindsight; this is because they ...
Analyzing of such case studies will bring an opportunity to overlook the role of the media in the conflicts from different perspectives. First of all, all examples took part in different period of time, which means that media development also have its input on the media role in the international conflicts. Secondly, countries where conflicts occurred have different relationships between the media and the state, which will make comparison more comprehensive and interesting to investigate.
America and United Kingdom are one of the most powerful states in the world, which basically have different policies and history. Comparison of such case studies would illuminate the role of the media outcomes in the international conflicts. Furthermore, the research will be support by theoretical frame, mostly considering the Marxist and Pluralist schools of thoughts. Both of schools shows the descriptive analyze of the media position in the politics and mostly important their relationship with governments of different political regimes.
Thus, analyzing the role of the media in international conflicts various internal and external political facts should be carefully considered. One of the most important facts is to analyze how media operates in different political regimes (totalitarian or liberal) and what influence it has internationally. Considering three case studies, in which different countries have took part, would help to bring the comparison to the investigation and later evaluate the answer of the dissertation question.
The Research paper on Mass Media News One Political
In America, the media holds a powerful and effective position in politicizing and socializing the general populace. The main political function of the media is to inform and analyze while being accountable. However the question of whether the media produces a pluralist democracy, or fosters a one dimensional society still remains unanswered. Many contemporary philosophers conclude that the media ...
One of the basic facts, which must be carefully considered, is how the media works at the local level. Considering the position of media at the local level, namely the comparison of media and government relations in different modes, will help to realize and understand the importance of the role of media in the international common level. Theoretical approach and methodology: ‘To better understand media we need to understand the political environment in which they operate’ (Croteau, 2002:77).
Consequently, the theoretical approach to the research question should be added.
Pluralists and Marxists perspectives focus their studies mostly on the regimes in which mass media operate, thereby explaining the relationship between the media and the state. Theoretical framework of two schools of thoughts considers its attention on the nature of state, as both of schools show opposite views and arguing against each other. Pluralists see the state as the neutral actor, who should take all decisions in the national interests. Obviously, the political power in such a state should be divided among the wide variety of political parties and pressure groups.
In 21st century we call it democracy. According to Pluralists perspective, mass media in democracy have freedom to express their own opinions on different international conflicts, but it does not mean that government could not criticize media if their views on the conflict are different (Jewkes, 2004:22).
From this perspective, research task may evaluate the media relationship with US government during the Vietnam War, period when media was completely ‘uncensored’. Pluralist perspectives could analyze why media had such free access to any military actions and how it affected the audience.
Marxism perspectives according to pluralist’s school of thought in such an area could be seen as a fundamental criticism. Marxists are very critical of capitalist societies and believe that media stand in the way of necessary social change. Marxists do not believe in the free media, as a good tool of democratic regimes. Mass media can be used and only, for encourage people to accept ideas which help to maintain the dominance of a Ruling Class (Jewkes, 2004:20).
The Essay on Why Did the Us Lose the War in Vietnam?
Answer with reference to the concept of insurgency/guerrilla warfare. The longest war in the history of the United States of America has taken place in Vietnam during the Cold War. “The US fear of a communist Europe led them to intervene in a war that was not seen in a vital importance or that would not be in the country`s interest to gain any advantage” (Bernstein 1987/8, p. 86). One of the main ...
From this side mass media does not have any influence on the international conflict and only presents the interests of the ruling class of the country.
This perspective may be apply to the Falklands conflict and on the example of the Vietnam War show the comparison of the relationships, which media could have with government in different modes. Considering methodology, all research would take the qualitative approach and base its investigation on books, reports, journal articles and various newspaper articles. Literature review: To begin with, even though Vietnam War ended more than 30 years ago many Americans continue to disagree about almost every aspect of the conflict (Carruthers 2011:96).
Americans still argue about the purpose of the Vietnam War and its outcomes; and media as an actor who pictured Vietnam conflict to the audience played a significant role in the origin of such disputes. ‘Vietnam War was the first war to receive sustained TV news coverage’ (Carruthers 2011:96).
It is widely believed, that television played a significant role in changing audience opinions against the war. Vietnam was a war in which television news was ‘lopsidedly favorable’ (Hammond, 1998).
In this case, media received a freedom in its actions and freely reported every military movement on TV, which makes people to have a look on the war from inside. Robin Day a British broadcaster, who delivered most memorable prognosis about conflict said: ‘Blood looks very red on television screen’ (Sulzberger, 1970: 39).
After Vietnam War many theorists came to conclusion, that war screened ‘uncensored’ on television, simply could not be won. Experience, which governments received from ‘uncensored’ media in Vietnam War put it influence on the media coverage during the conflict over the Falklands islands in 1982.
British Ministry of Defence (MOD) determined not to repeat what it understood to be the Pentagon’s great mistake in Vietnam: namely, allowing reporters free access to the battlefield. In this case, British government restricts the media access to the military actions and MOD kept print and broadcast journalists on an extremely tight rein (Carruthers 2011: 98).
British government added that the aim of the successful warfare is secrecy and media should not be closely connected to the military (Young and Jesser, 1997).
The Essay on The Vietnam Conflict
The Vietnam conflict began in 1950 and lasted until 1975. The main reason for US involvement was the fear of the domino theory devised by John Foster Dulles and launched by Eisenhower in 1954 which was the idea that once South Vietnam fell to communism, other countries would follow like a row of dominoes. The extent of us involvement changed under Kennedy and Johnson due to political and physical ...
Falklands conflict is a great example to investigate in comparison to Vietnam War; both case studies shows different connection with media coverage, which later would help critically evaluate the influence and role of the media in international conflicts. Douglas Kellner said that the Gulf war was ‘one of the first televised events of the global village in which the entire word watched a military spectacle unfold via international satellite and cable networks’ (Allan and Zelizer, 2004:136).
During the 90’s (period when the Gulf war took part) technology took a great raise in its development, which influenced on the spread of media around the globe. Moreover, US media (CNN) completely dominated the global coverage of the event (Allan and Zelizer, 2004:137).
The Gulf war is a case study, which will bring to the research an outlook on the fact how media development affect the media reporting on the international conflict. Furthermore, the investigation of this case study would help to understand to what extent the televised international conflicts have an effect on the politics of the governments who participate in them.
While in the spring of 1991, the Gulf War constituted a victory for the Bush’s administration, the event did not save Bush from the critics from international community and actually raised a question about effectiveness of his presidency (Robert and Denton, 1993:19).
Allan, S. and Zelizer, B. (2004) Reporting War: Journalism in Wartime New York: Taylor and Francis Inc. Carruthers, S. (2011) Media at War New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Croteau, A. (June, 2002) ‘Report for International Media Support’ Political influence on media Hammond, W. 1998) Reporting Vietnam: Media and Military at War, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. Jewkes, S. (May,2004) ‘Report for International Media Support’ Theorizing Media and Crime Puddephatt, A. (April, 2006) ‘Report for International Media Support’ Conflict and the role of the media Robert, E. and Denton, Jr. (1993) The Media and the Persian Gulf War, Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc. Sulzberger, C. (1970) ‘Foreign Affairs: Danger of the Private Eye’, The New York Times, April 29 Young, P. and Jesser, P. (1997) The Media and the Military: From the Crimea to Desert Strike, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
The Essay on War International Conflict
The Frequency of Armed International Conflict In the 20 th Century In 1962 there was a conflict between three nations so grim their actions could have affected the entire world. The Cuban missile crisis of 1962 was a very tense moment in history; these nations were almost at the brink of nuclear warfare. This is one of many armed international conflicts in the 20 th century. Another name more ...