I hereby declare that the study was carried out by me in the year 2010-2011 as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Masters’ degree in Social Work (M. S. W) in Mangalore University, under the guidance of Mr. Pradeep. M. D B. A. (Law), LL. B. , M. S. W. , (LL. M) Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, Pandeshwar, Mangalore. The research work, either fully or partially, has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title in any organization/institution/universities. Place: Mangalore Date: /04/2011 DHANARAJ NAIK.
P. G. DEDICATED TO My beloved Parents Gangyanaik, Pujar & Gouribai My Well Wishers And All My Sweet Friends and College Staff Acknowledgement ‘The value of special people cannot be measured but only treasured’ At the outset I would like to express my sincere appreciation thanks and gratitude to my guide, Mr. Pradeep. M. D B. A. (Law), LL. B. , M. S. W. , (LL. M) Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, for input guidance, valuable suggestions, content, encouragement and appreciation throughout the period of study. I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. P.
Tamilvanan, Chairman, New Mangalore Port Trust and Mr. C. Harichandran, Secretary, New Mangalore Port Trust, for giving me an opportunity to carry out the research project in their esteemed organization. I also extend my thanks to Mr. T. Khalid, Statistical and Research Officer, Management Services Division, New Mangalore Port Trust, Mr. Osmond Fernandez, Senior Research Assistant, Mr. Sadashiva B. R. , Deputy Traffic Manager, HRD cell of NMPT and employees and staff of New Mangalore Port trust. My heartfelt thanks to all my friends, field mates and class mates for helping and sharing materials in success of my study.
Abstract Studies on design research methodology are infrequent, although there is a consensus that more e ort is needed for improving design research quality. Previous calls for exercising better research methodology have been unsuccessful. As numerous studies reveal, there is no single scienti c methodology that is exercised in science or in any other research practice. Rather, research ...
Last but not the least, I would say that it is the love and prayer of my parents, my sister, my friend and my family and also their moral support and a lot more than words can express to complete this dissertation work. Place: Mangalore Date: /04/2011 DHANARAJ NAIK P. G. CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO. 1. A. INTRODUCTION 01-19 B. COMPANY PROFILE 20-26 2. REVIEW OF LITREATURE 27-39 3. METHODOLOGY 40-45 4. ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 46-87 5. MAJOR FINDINGS, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION 88-92 ANNEXURE – 1 B IBLIOGRAPHY 93-94 ANNEXURE – 2 QUESTIONNAIRE 95-101 LIST OF TABLES SI. NO
Title Page. No 46-87 01 Sex of the Respondents. 46 02 Age of the Respondents. 47 03 Marital status of the Respondents. 48 04 Educational Qualification. 49 05 Work experience 50 06 Training programmes are conducted. 51 07 Necessary for the Training Programme 52 08 Opinion regarding duration of Training programme. 53 09 Opinion to get trained in the areas of their preference. 54 10 Kind of Training getting from the organization. 55 11 Adequate importance is given for the training 56 12 Senior line managers are eager in helping juniors to develop them through training. 57 13
Adequate free time is given to the employees to reflect and plan for improvement after the training. 58 14 Training programmes are organized well. 59 15 Evident change in the performance after getting training. 60 16 Training programmes will provide an opportunity to bring out the hidden skills. 61 17 Aware of the selection procedure for training. 62 18 Development of the personality after attending the training. 63 19 Procedure of training need to be changed. 64 20 Interest that will be considered while setting the objectives of the training programme. 65 21 Training will improve confidence in work. 66 22
Trained on safety measures. 67 23 Developments after getting the training. 68 24 Training centre is well equipped to organize the training programmes. 69 25 Resource person of the training progrmme are efficient. 70 26 The organization considers training as a part of organizational strategy. 71 27 Number of training programmes attended in a year. 72 28 Trainings are more for. 73 29 Important barriers to training and development progarammes. 74 30 Mode of training method used. 75 31 Enough practicals are conducted during the training sessions. 76 32 Employees are motivated to attend the training programmes.
Training is the process of acquiring specific skills to perform a job better (Jucious, 1963). It helps people to become qualified and proficient in doing some jobs (Dahama, 1979). Usually an organization facilitates the employees’ learning through training so that their modified behaviour contributes to the attainment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Van Dersal (1962) ...
77 33 Duration needed for the implementation of the training programmes. 78 34 The kind of training imparted for the newly recruited employees. 79 35 Training and development programmes needed to make their carrier aspirations to come true. 80 36 The conditions that have to be improved during the training session. 81 37 Skills that should be possessed by the trainer to make it effective. 82 38 Reason for the shortage of skilled man power at workplace. 83 39 Training needed to perform other jobs. 84 40 General complaints about the training sessions. 85 41 Degree to which the training objective is met. 86 42
Come across with any problems during the training sessions. 87 CHAPTER -1 a. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. All employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labour market at all times, because they make some demand for employees in the labour market.
This can only be achieved through employee training and development. Hence employees have a chance to negotiate as well as employer has a good opportunity to select most suitable person for his vacancy. Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation. There is no doubt that a well trained and developed staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances of his efficiency in discharging his or her duties.
Trainings in an organization can be mainly of two types; Internal and External training sessions. Internal training involves when training is organized in-house by the human resources department or training department using either a senior staff or any talented staff in the particular department as a resource person. The game of economic confutation as rules. This requires responding to customers’ needs for quality, variety, customization convince timeliness. Meeting these new standards requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects.
... ’s knowledge, skills and abilities. Performance Discrepancies Lack of clear, concise information regarding quality and standards. Little to no follow through on development ... Several methods of analysis including employee feedback, job observation and job questionnaires were used to collect job data and identify training needs. One of the ...
It requires people who are capable analyzing solving job related problem working comparatively in teams and ‘changing hats’ and shifting from job as well. Training has in increased in importance in today’s environment where jobs are complex and change rapidly. Companies that pay lip-service to the need for training, by lazily setting aside a few hours a year, will soon find themselves at the receiving end when talented employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficult to beat rivals with new products, sophisticated designs and improving ways of selling .
to survive and flourish in the present day corporate jungle companies should invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and skills of their employees constantly. For any company that stops injecting itself with intelligence is going to die. Every organization needs to have well – trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. The effective functioning of any organization requires that employees learn to perform their jobs at satisfactory level of proficiency. An effective organization wishes to have amongst its ranks individuals that are qualified to accept increasing responsibilities.
So that organization needs in their present jobs, but also to develop their capabilities of other jobs, for which they might later be considered. Training enables the employee to get acquainted with jobs and also increase their aptitude, skills and knowledge. It makes newly recruited employees fully productive in the minimum of time. Even for the old workers, it is necessary to refresh them and to enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques as well as new machine and equipments for doing the work.
Thus, training is not a ‘One step process’ but it is a ‘continuous or never ending process’ because it increase the knowledge and skills of new employees in performing their jobs and serves as a refresher course for the old employees training job will never be finished as long as organization remains operation. Training can be introduced simply as a process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficiency and effectiveness to a particular work area by getting more knowledge and practices. Also training is important to establish specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee.
I have been to some interviews before, formal interviews, scholarship interviews, and casual interviews. But I have never experienced a real job interview. Before, I was really intimidated by the term “job interview”. Some people say that it may be the basis whether one will get his dream job or not; so I can feel that a person’s life depends on it. A single move may make or break one’s dream. ...
For an organization, training and development are important as well as organizational growth, because the organizational growth and profit are also dependent on the training. But the training is not a core of organizational development. It is a function of the organizational development. Training is different form education; particularly formal education. The education is concerned mainly with enhancement of knowledge, but the aims of training are increasing knowledge while changing attitudes and Competences in good manner.
Basically the education is formulated with in the framework and to syllabus, but the training is not formed in to the frame and as well as syllabus. It may differ from one employee to another, one group to another, even the group in the same class. The reason for that can be mentioned as difference of attitudes and skills from one person to another. Even the situation is that, after good training programme, all different type skilled one group of employees can get in to similar capacity, similar skilled group. That is an advantage of the trainings .
In the field of Human Resources Management, Training and Development is the field concern with organizational activities which are aimed to bettering individual and group performances in organizational settings. It has been known by many names in the field HRM, such as employee development, human resources development, learning and development etc. Training is really developing employees’ capacities through learning and practicing. On the other hand external training is normally arranged outside the firm and is mostly organized by training institutes or consultants.
Whichever training, it is very important for all staff and helps in building career positioning and preparing staff for greater challenges in developing world. However the training is costly. Because of that, people who work at firms do not receive external trainings most of times. The cost is a major issue for the lack of training programmes in Sri Lanka. But nowadays, a new concept has come with these trainings which is “Trainers through trainees”. While training their employees in large quantities, many countries use that method in present days to reduce their training costs.
... their skills, knowledge, and abilities to improve their value for the future careers. Simulations are the most popular in employee development. ... are off-the-job. First off is job rotation is used in employees’ development as well as training. Job rotation can be ... other initiatives for training. Employee development methods consist of six different techniques. Some of which are on-the-job and some ...
The theory of this is, sending a little group or an individual for a training programme under a bonding agreement or without a bond. When they come back to work, the externally trained employees train the employees who have not participated for above training programme by internal training programmes. Employers of labour should enable employees to pursue training and development in a direction that they choose and are interested in, not just in company-assigned directions. Companies should support learning, in general, and not just in support of knowledge needed for the employee’s current or next anticipated job.
It should be noted that the key factor is keeping the employee interested, attending, engaged, motivated and retained. For every employee to perform well, especially Supervisors and Managers, there is a need for constant training and development. The right employee training, development and education provides big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution to general growth of the firm. In most cases external trainings for instance provide participants with the avenue to meet new set of people in the same field and network.
The meeting will give them the chance to compare issues and find out what is obtainable in each others environment. This for sure will introduce positive changes where necessary. It is not mentioned in any where that the employers, managers and supervisors are not suitable for training programmes. They also must be highly trained if they are expected to do their best for the organization. Through that they will have best abilities and competencies to manage the organization. Training employees not only creates a more positive corporate culture, but also add a value to its key resources.
Skills are just something that you are good at or they are a part of you. Everybody in the world has a skill, but sometimes they are hard to find. When employers look for some one to hire they are looking for people with specific skills to fit the job. Each job has different skills that are accompanied with each job, but there are four main areas in which all employers look for when they want to ...
Raw human resources can make only limited contribution to the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. Hence the demands for the developed employees are continuously increasing. Thus the training is a kind of investment. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Training often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. It is usually reserved for people who have to be brought up to performing level in some specific skills. The skills are almost always behavioral as distinct from conceptual or intelligence. Development, in contrast is
considered to be more general than training and more oriented to individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimed towards management people. There is more theory involved with such education and hence less concern with specific behavior than is the case with training. Usually the intent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding will enable people to carry out non technical organizational functions more effectively such as problem solving, decision making and relating to people. Meaning The term ‘Training’ is concerned with impacting specific skills for a particular purpose.
Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies. These competencies include knowledge, skills, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance in the immediate term or near future. This is in contrast with development, which is training that provides employees with competencies for anticipated future jobs and roles. The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skill, and behaviours emphasized in training programs and to apply them to their day-to-day activities.
High-leverage training is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective, and compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against training programs in other companies. High-leverage training practices also help to create working conditions that encourage continuous learning. Continuous learning requires employees to understand the entire work system, including the relationships among their jobs, their work units, and the company.
Employees are expected to acquire new skills and knowledge, apply them on the job, and share this information with other employees. Managers take an active role in identifying training needs and help to ensure that employees use training in their work. To facilitate the sharing of knowledge, managers may use informational maps that show where knowledge lies within the company (for example, directories and/or skills inventories that list what individuals do as well as the specialized knowledge they possess) and use technology such as groupware or the internet that allows employees in
various business units to work simultaneously on problems and share Information. Training is used to improve employee performance, which leads to improved business results. Training is seen as one of several possible solutions to improve performance. Other solutions can include such actions as changing the job or increasing employee motivation through pay and incentives. Today there is a greater emphasis on: • Providing educational opportunities for all employees. • An ongoing process of performance improvement that is directly measurable rather than organizing one-time training events.
• The need to demonstrate to executives, managers, and trainees the benefits of training. • Learning as a lifelong event in which senior management, trainer managers, and employees have ownership. • Training being used to help attain strategic business objectives, which help companies, gains a competitive advantage. Measuring the return on investment in research and development, marketing, sales, and human resources is key for demonstrating the value to the business. Each of Medtronic’s businesses uses a scorecard to measure success and return on investment.
Medtronic is currently developing metrics to measure how training contributes to the company’s success. Definitions: “Edwin. B. Ellppo” has defined “Training as the cut of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”. “Michael Armstrong” defines “Training as the systematic development of the knowledge skills and attitudes acquired by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job”. “Michael J. Jucious” “Training is any process by which the attitude, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are improved”.
“Michael Armstrong” “Training is the systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development. The above definition suggests that training enhance the skill and capabilities of the individuals in an organization. For training to be successful, the employees have to be convinced of its utility and effectiveness. A successful training program, which in turn enhance organizational performance. THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
The Efficiency of an organization depends on the capacity and talents of its personnel and how motivated they are capability of the depends on his ability to work and type of training he receives. After the employees have been selected for various positions in an organization, training them for the specific tasks to which they been assigned assumes great importance. It is true in many originations that before employees are fitted into a harmonious working relationship with the other employees, he is given adequate training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job.
The major outcome of training is learning. Trainees learn new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job. Training is needed to serve the following purposes. Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently without any wastage. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level jobs (promotion).
Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest development operation. In face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity. Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer).
After training the employee can change jobs quickly, improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortable. Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees has and what the job demands.
Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run. Training is needed for employees to again acceptance from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance. Thus, training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers. Training tries to improve a specific skill relating to a job whereas development aims at improving the total personality of an individual. Training is one-shot deal; whereas development is an ongoing continuous process.
The scope of training is on individual employee, whereas eth scope of development is on the entire work group or the organization. Training is mostly the result of initiatives taken by management. It is the result of some outside motivation. Training seeks to meet the current recruitment of the jobs and the individual; whereas development aims at meeting the future needs of the job and the individual. In other words, training is a reactive process whereas development is a proactive process. Development is future oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. Learning Dimension
Training Development Meant for Focus Scope Goal Initiated by Content Time – Frame Operatives Current job Individual employee Fix current skill deficit Management Specific job related information Immediate Executives Current and future jobs Work group or organization Prepare for future work demands The individual General knowledge Long term AREAS OF TRAINING: The areas of training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories. Knowledge: Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or service offered by the company.
The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company. Technical skills: The employee is taught a specific skill (e. g. operating a machine, handling computer etc) so that he can acquire that shill and contribute meaningfully. Social skills: The employee is made to learn about himself and others, and to develop a right mental attitude towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employees hoe to be a teach member and get ahead. TYPES OF TRAINING: There many approaches to training.
We focus here on the types of training that are commonly employed in present day organizations. Skills Training: This type of training is most common in the organization. The process here is fairly simple. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem soloing, man gaining oneself, knowing how to learn, working as part of a team, leading others) is identified through assessment. Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those objectives. Several methods are
available for imparting these basic skills in modern organization (such as lecture, apprenticeship, on- the job, coaching etc).
Refresher Training: Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. By organizing short term course which in corporate that latest development in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialize in a particular descriptive. Cross – functional Training:
Cross functional training involves training employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned job. There are many approaches to cross functional training. Job rotation can be used to provide a manager in one functional area with a broader perspective than he would otherwise have. Department can exchange personnel for a certain period so that each employee understands how other department functions. Team Training: Team training generally covers two areas: content task and group processes. Content tasks specify the team’s goal such as cost control and problem solving.
Group processes reflect the way the member function as team – for example how they interact with other, how they sort out difference, how they participate etc. Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the work place – race, gender, age lifestyles, culture, education, ideas, and background- while designing training programmes. It aims to create better cross – cultural sensitivity with the aims of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationship among firm’s employees. TRAINING METHODS: Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction.
On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skill and abilities at the actual workplace. Off-the-job training on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. 1. Job Instruction Training (JIT) The JIT method is a four – step instructional preparation, presentation, and performance try out and follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A Trainer, supervisor or co- worker acts as the coach. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are: i.
The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes, with clear focus on the relevance of training. ii. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. iii. Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer’s way. Demonstrates by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job. iv. Finally, the employee does job independently without supervision. 1. Coaching : Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employee by immediate supervision.
It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisor and peers. In coaching, the supervisor explain things and answer questions; he throws light on why things are done the way they are; he offers a model for trainees to copy ; conducts lot of decision making meeting with trainees; procedure are agreed upon and the trainees is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes. Coaching can be taxing job in that the coach may not possess requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way.
Sometimes, doing a full day’s work may be more important than putting the learner on track. 2. Mentoring: Mentoring is relationship in which a senior manager in organization assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person. Technical, interpersonal and political skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more experienced person. A mentor is a teacher, suppose, counselor, developer of skills and intellect, host, guide exemplar and most importantly, supporter and facilitator in the realization of the vision the young person has about the kind of life he wants as an adult.
The main objective of mentoring is to help an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organization. 3. Job rotation: This kind of training involves the movement of trainee one job to another. This helps him to have a general understanding of how the organization functions. The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organizational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as a better sense if their own career objectives and interests.
Apart from reliving boredom, job rotation allows trainees to build rapport cooperation among departments. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for organizations when transfers, promotions or replacement become inevitable. 4. Apprenticeship Training: Most croft workers such as plumbers and carpenters are trained through formal apprenticeship programmes. Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer.
Apprenticeships and internships are similar to apprenticeship because that also demand high levels of participation from the trainee. An internship is a kind of on the job training that usually combines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools, colleges or universities. It is also likely that it in these of rapid changes I technology, old skills may get outdated quickly. Trainees who spend years learning specific skills may find, upon completion of their programmes, that the job skills they acquired are no longer appropriate.
OFF-THE- JOB METHODS: Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation ad his attention is focused upon learning the materials related to his future job performance. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Off-the-job methods are as follows: a) Vestibule Training: In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, files and equipment- those that are used in actual job performance are also used in the training. This type of training is commonly
used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training range from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method. b) Role playing: It is defined as method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineer, quality control inspector, foremen, workers and the like.
This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. c) Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively.
d) Conference / discussion approach: In this method, the trainers deliver a lecture and involve the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified. When big organization use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as black board, mock ups and slides; in some cases the lecture are videotapes or audio taped. Even the trainee’s presentation can be taped for self confrontation and self-assessment. The conference is, thus a group-centered where there is a clarification of ideas, communication of procedures and standards to the trainees.
Those individuals who have a general educational background and whatever specific skills are required- such as typing, shorthand, office equipment operation, filling, indexing, recording etc- may be provided with specific instructions to handle their respective jobs. e) Programmed Instruction: This method has becomes popular in recent years. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instructions. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks.
This method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming. NEED FOR TRAINING: Training is the act of improving one’s knowledge and skill to improve his/her job performance. Training is job – oriented. It bridges the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands. For that matter, imparting to employees working in all organized sectors of human activity is longer a matter of debate. The need for training has been recognized as essential activity not only in the business organizations, but also in academic institution, professional bodies and the government department. IMPARTANCE OF TRAINING:
The importance of training can best be appreciated with the help of various advantages it offers to both employees and employer. 1. Better performance: Training improves employee’s ability and skills, in turn improves employee’s performance both in quality and quantity. Better or increased employee performance directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased organizational profits. Improvements in employee performance / productivity in development countries lend support to this statement. 2. Improved Quality: In formal training programmes, the best methods of performing