Proper use of instructional materials can motivate the students in varied learning experiences as well as teaching-learning process. Preschool programs include work activities that are designed to teach children motor skills, mental and social-emotional learning experiences. By using recycled materials they may improve their motor skills effectively and they can imaginatively make their own designs. A teacher who directs learning activities encourages social and emotional responses from the children. Providing materials with which children can experiment allows them to discover new knowledge.
Younger children pay more attention to lessons that involve showing and doing activities. Education becomes exciting and meaningful for children when the teachers have used the best possible resources and present them in good lessons. Instructional supports cannot teach by themselves. They need skillful way of teaching to deliver them effectively. For the pupils to gain from the presentation of the material, the teacher must see to it that it is base from their age level, intelligence and experience (Lardizabal, 1991).
Teaching materials functions also as primary reference on how teachers should teach the learners.
Due to the rise of modernization newer devices were developed and even growing faster. However, it does not mean to replace the traditional teaching materials. They are only teaching devices used to guide and assist teachers especially the new teachers who are fresh in the teaching profession. As a result, teaching becomes innovative and creative. Although, the effective use of learning resources is dependent on the expertise of the teacher. Improvement will largely depend on the creatively, resourcefulness and expertise of the teacher to use some instructional aterials. Theoretical Framework This study is inspired by the following theories which serve as its framework: Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development has had a strong impact on many aspects of education. His cognitive and development theory emphasizes the child’s need to master age-related tasks prior to move on to the next stage. The interplay between the child and the developing human being simply relies on his or her senses. Gradually, profiting from the manipulation of concrete objects, the child forms cognitive schema.
Behavioral teaching and learning tends to focus on skills that are acquired by an individual but are likely to be applied at a later stage in life. For instance, an individual may learn computational skills only to apply them when he gets a job. Behavioral theories support a number of approaches to teaching. All of them fall under the category of direct or teacher centered instruction. Operant ...
Eventually, the adolescent learns to abandon this reliance on the concrete, and then abstract thinking that emerges (Bustos and Espiritu, 1996).
This theory explains that a child will develop his mental capacity by passing into ladderized steps. The child can only move on once he/she learns the current step suitable at his/her age. Learning progression involves the development of our five senses. Bustos and Espiritu (1996) cited that Piaget’s Concrete Operation explains that while that child at this stage has developed a functional use of logic, he does not however attain the highest level of use of logical operations.
His logic is still dependent upon concrete objects and present events in using schemes or problem-solving. This stage is also considered a transition between pre-logical thought and completely logical thought. The concrete operations stage corresponds to the elementary school years. By this time, children begin to learn symbol system and concepts. They begin to learn to add, subtract, classify order and apply certain principles or relationships between things or events, and apply rules to their conduct. Children’s thinking becomes more logical and systematic.
Although they are now able to reason by analogy situations which cannot be dealt with through direct experiences, these children cannot yet apply such logic to problems that are primarily hypothetical and verbal. Under the social learning Theory of Bandura, an individual learns through observation and limitation of others. The concepts in social learning and self-regulated learning and models used in social learning theory are classified as real-life, which is exemplified by teachers, and parents, symbolic which are reprinted through oral or written symbols, e. g. books, and recreational which is presented through audiovisual means, e. g. , films (Acero, et al, 2004).
Learning styles theory originated in the 1970’s and is based around the idea that people have preferences about how they like to learn. Theorists believe that each individual has a particular learning style that is best suited to them and allows them to collect and process information successfully in order to learn. The principle idea is that these learning style differ from one individual to the ...
The Social Learning Theory states that observation is one way of acquiring knowledge. This could be an observation on human, animals, nature and other things and objects with respect to the environment. Hudgins (1971) cited the reception learning theory associated by David P Ausebel, the chief functional of the teacher and the school is to transmit knowledge to the learners through texts and other books, discussion, educational television, and other instructional resources.
The first behaviorist to apply stimulus-response theories of learning to the study of child development was John Broadus Watson. He demonstrated the role played by classical conditioning in human learning by consistency presenting a young child with white, funny objects at the same as he made a frightening loud noise. As a result, the child became afraid of all white, funny objects. Jerome Bruner, an American psychologist, advocates the Theory of Discovery Learning. The materials to be taught or learned should be presented in a form that the child can understand intuitively.
By intuition, the child learns going through analytic steps. The child makes a shrewd guess, gives a fertile hypothesis, or leaps to a tentative conclusion. The learning materials must be interesting for the child to be stimulated to learn (Ulit, et al, 1995).
In the following discussion I will draw on tutorial tasks 'A' and 'B' and further readings, as I reflect on the knowledge I have gained from my work and the work of others in this subject. The topics, such as 'Language and Literacy in the Classroom' and 'how children can be supported with their Language and Literacy Development' are of great interest to me. Therefore I will reflect on new ...
According to Edward Thorndike as cited by Gregorio (1996) in his law of readiness, he states that when someone is ready to perform an act, it is satisfying. When someone is not ready to perform act it is annoying. One can help the child to get ready by developing pre-requisite skills in an interesting and meaningful way.
Instead of waiting for the child to get ready, parents and teachers can help build readiness through skillful guidance in a well-prepared and rich classroom environment. In a well prepared and rich classroom environment, the connection between a stimulus and response are strengthened as they are used, again as postulated by Thorndike, in his law of exercise. In connections between stimulus and response when weakened, the practice is discontinued if not reinforced by the environment. The cornerstone of the Montessori approach is a respect for the child as an individual striving for independence.
The role of the Montessori teachers is to observe each child carefully and to facilitate learning through the child’s own experiences. The teachers provides order to a child’s learning, not to dictate what should be learned, but to help structure the process by which everything and anything can be learned. Even today, more than 90 years after the creation of Maria Montessori’s centers, her program remains the only organized, sequential, and individualized preschool curriculum that has been tested and proven to work.
The program emphasizes a balance of broad-based skills (physical, social, emotion, intellectual, creative), while building excellent technical skills in fundamental academic areas of reading, writing, speaking and numeracy (number literacy).
It encourages the development of personal characteristics that facilitate learning: persistence, curiosity, independence, and creativity. It also incorporates subjects that are either non-traditional or are neglected by the other schools, such as music and movement, interpersonal communications, art, human values and cultures, and practical life skills such as cooking, recycling and first aid.