Historically medicine is the only science that conducts life threatening experiments on human subjects in order to advance its knowledge base in the name of progress. When progress and commercialism coincide the potential for abuse is very great; as the medicine become more scientific it has also become more complicated.
The outcome of such as coalition for profit is painstakingly detailed in Allen M. Hornblum’s historical expose of clinical non-therapeutic medical experiments conducted between 1952 and 1974 on the inmates of Holmesburg Prison, Philadelphia country’s largest goal facility.
Holmesburg Prison was the largest varies medical experimental center in the world and the largest non-therapeutic human research factory in the United States. Its shocking activities drew little attention and alarm until the 1970s. The experiments were denounced as shocking and abominable where human beings are treated as white rabbits or guinea pigs. Hornblum, who teaches urban studies at Temple University and bizarre. Acres of skin in Holmesburg Prison shed a light on the dark episode in American medical history.
The Prison as Laboratory
From the mid 1950s through the mid 1970s, acres of skin is a disturbing expose set in Philadelphia’s Holmesburg Prison, the inmates were used, in exchange for a few dollars as guinea pigs in a host of medical experiments. Hornblum paints a disturbing portrait of abuse, moral indifference and greed, as doctors, in conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania and the prison officials; establishes the prisoners as a testing laboratory.
The Essay on How Do You Feel About the Idea of the Medical Field Tampering with Human Life with Genetics?
... at risk to have healthy children. But for non-medical, cosmetic purposes, we believe this would undermine humanity ... an unborn fetus is not an individual, not a human being. This thinking is all directly based upon ... phrase, “Only the strong survive.” Scientists who destroy human life in a lab, and mothers who abort ... For those who do cross that line and kill human life, at what point do you draw the ...
Dr. Albert Kligman a physician and a professor of Dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School barred from experimenting on human subjects. As he (Kligman) walk into Holmesburg Prison in 1951 he described as it was like a farmer seeing a fertile field for the first time.
At Holmesburg, Kligman- who more recently developed Retin-A, had another captive audience, this time for experiments he carried out for pharmaceutical companies. Hundreds of prisoners were used to test products from facial creams, and sink moisturizers to perfumes, detergents and anti-rash treatments. Other experiments used the inmates as test subjects for far more hazardous, even potentially lethal, substances such as radioactive isotopes, dioxin, and chemical warfare agents.
PRISONERS UNDERGO EXPERIMENTS
Leotus Jones and David Price are one of the former prisoners and is a subject of human experimentation at Holmesburg prison. Roughly 80 inmates will sleep on bunk beds in the prisons gymnasium, which recently was refurbished to serve as the prisons system’s garment shop. Holmesburg population is soaring from 8,674 to 8,900 persons according to census conducted. Jesse Williams, 66 of age and one of the prisoners relate that he walked with mental and physical scars that will last a lifetime. He was just one of the hundreds, perhaps thousands of prison inmates who underwent radical experiments. Prisoners sold their bodies for nothing or earn fro $50 to $75 per test. The first start out innocently and leave a large scar on their bodies.
Dr. Benard Ackerman was a medical resident from the University of Pennsylvania who conducted some of the experiments at Holmesburg Prison. Ackerman is now one of the nation’s lauding dermatopathologist because of Holmesburg prison. The officials of the prison used this experiments reveal the entrepreneurial underpinnings of medicine as a lucrative business with a vast revenue potential that can be devoid of concern for increasing health or the quality of life.
The Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE) was conducted in 1971 at Stanford University in the ... , no psychological issues and no major medical conditions. Each of the 70 applicants were psychologically tested and the 24 most “normal” were ... their behaviour in response to the situational variables of the experiment. Prisoners were dehumanized and their individuality stripped away, while the guards ...
Prisoners were paid small fees to be infected with ringworm, warts, herpes, and other bacteria. Some were exposed to highly dangerous photo-toxic drugs, ultraviolet rays, radioactive isotopes and chemicals such as dioxin. Major pharmaceutical companies tested new commercial drugs that ranged from tranquilizers, analgesics and antiseptics to antibiotics. Inmates experienced side affects and toxic reactions including hallucinations, confusions, disorientation and delirium.
Some subjects were left with permanent memory loss, chronic irritability and their cognitive performance on test was impaired.
FEDERAL VIOLATION AND REGUALTIONS
The government also profited from the cheap supply of human flesh and thus violates their regulations. The United States government contracted with the prison to test chemical warfare agents, addictive drugs and pain killers. The Central Intelligence Agency maintained secret programs in brainwashing hypnosis, electroshock, personality assessments and mind-controlling drugs. Jessica Mitford, also study of experimental medical research in the United States draw analogy between medical prison research and the experiments of the Nazis in though World War II.
The research conducted at Holmesburg Prisons was clearly in violation of the Nuremburg Code and the Hippocratic Oath. The research methods were questioned as unprofessional as well as unethical buy the bioethicist, politicians and lawyers.
The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential as it reads to the Nuremburg Code of 1947, which was drafted in direct response to the sheer barbarity of Nazi-era medical. In October 2000, nearly 300 former inmates filed suit against the University of Pennsylvania, dermatologist Albert M. Kligman and corporate giants Dow Chemical and Johnson and Johnson for injuries, lingering physical illnesses and psychological trauma suffered as a result of experimental conducted at Holmesburg Prison.
... of the article present all the essential components of the research study. There will be a decrease in temperature in the newborn ... is thermo regulation in newborn infants. The purpose of the research study is to find out if Kangaroo, or skin-to-skin ... scope of the findings of this study. Several recommendations were made for future studies. "First, additional research staff are needed to cover evening ...
Revelations about medical research on prisoners began to come to linger when the Federal Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP) a division of the department of health and human services. Furthermore, the OHRP does not keep tabs on failed research studies of prisoner deaths. Independent of Federal oversight, privately funded clinical trials have even less of a chancel of meeting of public scrutiny.
According to Federal Regulations, research in prisons must fit into one of four permissible categories studies of the possible causes and effects of incarceration and criminal behavior; studies of prisons as institutional structures or of prisoners as incarcerated persons; research on conditions affecting prisoners as a group; and the research involving therapy likely to benefit the inmate who are involved. In al cases, studies are required to present no more than a minimal risk to the prisoner.
IMPACT ON PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
By 1972, the pharmaceutical industry was doing more than 90 percent of its experimental testing on the prisoners. The appeal and the advantage of an always accessible and highly controlled study group were obvious to researchers and trial sponsors alike, and as researchers liked to point out, inmates themselves were eager to do something good in the society, make money or win favorable treatment or early release. But failure of these research studies often had devastating results on their captive subjects.
The lesson learned for the health care industry, because of their eagerness of searching for a new a better ways of fighting diseases. The doctors were threaten the lives and unable to prevent the spread of diseases of the prisoners. Greediness of fame and fortune resulted to pain and suffering of people in the Holmesburg Prison. Moreover because of inhuman test experiments majority of the former prisoners were died in the latter years.
Hornblum’s in depth study gives voice to the once silent victims of commercial and governmental medical research, consider the ethics of research for specialized or commercial interest in general that overlook the worth of human beings. The abuses of Holmesburg Prison are over but not the scars it made and it is from the only site where captive populations are exploited by unrestrained self-interested researchers, officials and private companies.
... models. Other affective alternatives to animal research include studying an actual human being. Volunteers and patients can be ... them would save more lives. Clinical research along with healthy medical practices and therapies would be genuine. ... through veterinary medicine (Most 1). The Medical Research Modernization Committee suggests, Medical advances have been delayed because of misleading ...
This book is written with compassion and makes a significant contribution to social medical history of science through its scholarship as well as through its call for social justice. Hornblum’s goal is to show how American prisoners were exploited in the name of MEDICAL SCIENCE.
Hornblum, Allen, Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison, A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science, New York, Routledge, 1998.