BACKGROUND: Afghanistan was subdued and occupied by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (U. S. S. R. i.
e. Russia) in 1979. Subsequently in ten years, anti-communist forces provided and trained by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan assisted in the removal of the Soviet power. As the fighting resumed, a fundamentalist Islamic movement referred to as the Taliban managed to seize most of the country. Under their ascendancy, the country of Afghanistan became extremely improvised and suffered from a fallen governmental infrastructure.
GEOGRAPHY: Afghanistan is situated in southern Asia, northwest of Pakistan; east of Iran. It possesses a total land area of 647, 500 sq. km. In it’s comparative aspect, Afghanistan is slightly smaller than Texas. Bordering countries such as China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan surrounds it. The land is less than 12% arable.
46% of the land consists of permanent pastures and 3% are occupied with forests and woodlands. Mostly rugged mountains and plains in the north and southwest portion of the country make up it’s terrain. Afghanistan is susceptible to natural hazards such as damaging earthquakes, floods, and droughts. This country has a seasonal climate of arid and semiarid air. They experience cold winters and hot summers. Current environmental issues involve soil degradation, overgrazing, deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials), and desertification.
I had a dream, in which I saw a country where people were not begging but they were working. In that dream of mine I saw playing but then turning towards the mosque. I saw a country where there was as much greenery like there is blue in the sky. I saw a country where no one was ruling anyone but they were ruling themselves. I saw kids listening to their mothers instead of abusing and insulting ...
This country has established international environment agreements to deter marine dumping and nuclear testing, in addition to the implementation of environmental modification and preservation of it’s endangered species. PEOPLE: Afghanistan possess a population of 26, 818, 057 (July 2001 est. ) This number consists of 42% under the age of 14, 55% classified between the ages of 15 and 64, and 3% over the age of 65. As of 2001, this country has seen a population growth rate of 3. 5%, but this rate exhibits the continuous return of refugees from Iran. The life expectancy of the Afghan people is about 46 years of existence.
Afghanistan occupies a multitude of ethnic cultures and groups such as Pashtun, Tajik, Hazard, and Uzbek. Most people of this country adopt the religion of Islam with 84% practicing as Sunni Muslims and 15% as Shi’a Muslims. The languages of this country are in a variation of Pashto, Afghan Persian, Turkic, and much of them in bilingualism. Illiteracy is the prevalent impediment among the Afghan people with only 31% of the population capable of reading and writing. In the aspect of gender, 47% of the males have the ability to read and write, which is a substantial difference to females who consist of only 15% of the literate group.
GOVERNMENT: The Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning central government because the country has been preoccupied with warfare instead stabilizing it’s economic and governmental structure. It is administered by factions of authority that oversees it’s administrative divisions. Badakshan, Badghis, Bagh lan, Balkh, Banian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Ka pisa, Kona r, Kondo z, Laghman, Low gar, Nangarhar, Nim ruz, Oruzgan, Pak tia, Pak tika, Parva n, Sa mangan, Sar-e Pol, Takh ar, Vardar, and Zabel represent Afghanistan’s 30 provinces. Kabul is the capital of this country, which gained it’s independence on August 19, 1919 from the United Kingdom’s control.
Although it has no executive, legislative, and judicial dominance, this country operates under Shari’a (Islamic Law).
The Taliban has proclaimed themselves the adequate government of Afghanistan, however since the terrorist attacks against America on September 11, 2001, American troops have usurped many Taliban officials from the country including it’s leader, Mullah Mohammad Omar and Osama Bin Landing. Before the intrusion of the Islamic perpetrators, Burhanuddin Rabb ani of the United National Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (UNISA) maintained it’s governmental infrastructure. No embassy operations are present in America since it’s suspension on August 21, 1997.
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Also, due to security concerns, the US embassy in Kabul has been closed since January 1989. EDUCATION: 95% of Afghanistan’s children find education inaccessible, a lucid indication that the education system in this country is not a priority. This is largely due to the continuation of armed conflict. This generation of Afghans seem to be existing in a state of illiteracy, and girls are most affected. It is reported that 8, 000 girls in Afghanistan managed to acquire education up to the rudiment al level. It is also reported that the country faces a predicament; the lack of educators is particularly the reason.
Teachers are fleeing to the country because of unsafe territory. ECONOMY: Afghanistan is an extremely poor and deprived nation that relies on farming and livestock care taking (sheep and goats).
Economic priorities are secondary to political and military considerations in Afghanistan. Gross domestic product has fallen over the last 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the nation’s difficulties in 1998-2000.
The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Another major concern is it’s inflation problem, which is adverse to the many poverty-stricken people residing in this country. Afghanistan was by far the largest producer of opium poppies in 2000, and narcotics trafficking are a major source of revenue. The nation’s labor force now stands at about 10 million workers, which is classified into three occupations: agriculture (70%), industry (15%), and services (15%).
The country’s industries produce small-scale textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement in addition to handwoven carpets, natural gas, oil, coal, and copper. The nations agricultural products consist of opium poppies, wheat, fruits, and nuts.
Girls’ education: towards a better future for all January 2005 Foreword ‘To be educated means… I will not only be able to help myself, but also my family, my country, my people. The benefits will be many.’ MEDA WAGTOLE, SCHOOLGIRL, ETHIOPIA At the turn of the millennium, the international community promised that by 2005, there would be as many girls as boys in school. Later this year, when leaders ...
Afghanistan maintains partnership with export partners such as Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, United Kingdoms, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Czech Republic. The nation exports opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems that aggregates about $80 million in revenue. Afghanistan possesses partnership with import countries such as Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea, and Germany, which provides capital goods, food, petroleum products, and most consumer goods. These imports supply the nation with about $150 million in revenue. The United States provided about $70 million in humanitarian assistance in 1997; U. S.
continues to contribute to assistance through the U. N. programs of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons. A perceptible indication of Afghanistan’s inadequate economy is its exchange rate to the American dollar. The official exchange rate is 3, 000 afghanis to one American dollar. AFGHANISTAN’S ISSUES: Some the Afghanistan faction has supported Islamic militants worldwide and as a result, the devastation and horror of September 11 transpired.
Afghanistan is also attributed with a major drug trade. A large percentage of Afghan economic revenue is acquired through drug exchange and export. The Afghan country faces extreme issues such as illiteracy, destitution, a lack of centralized government, economic problems, and natural disasters. Afghanistan is labeled the world’s largest illicit opium producer producing about 1, 670 metric tons a year. Also, a number of heroin-processing laboratories are being established in the country; major political factions in the country profit from this drug manufacture.