The British colonial government of India did not pursue an active policy of agricultural development despite modest efforts to formulate one. Indian exports, at the latter part of British Raj mainly comprised of foodgrains, cotton, jute, opium and indigo. By 1881, Famine commissions were set in each province in India aiming to step up agriculture. They carried out scientific research. But output was very low. After WWI, the Royal Commission (set up in 1926 to find reasons for low output) promoted welfare for the rural community and also suggested the formation of the ICAR (Imperial Council of Agricultural Research) which happened in 1929.
Wide research was encouraged, and irrigation focused upon. The 1930s then saw the Great Depression felt worldwide. After WWII and incidents including Bengal Famine and Great Depression, reorganization was effected. Despite such great strides, there was a low productivity per hectare, because of several reasons, including the Great Depression of the 1930s, The Bengal Famine, primitive technology, extremely frequent droughts, unemployment or under-employment, poverty and exploitation of the rural community. Farmers were left with meager incentive and were bound to depend on moneylenders.
The Land Tenure System was prominent. From 1891 to 1946, output of all crops grew at 0. 4% per annum. This rate for food grains was only 0. 1 % per year. Specifically, there were few improvements in seeds, agricultural implements, machines, or chemical fertilizers. Since Independence: On independence, agriculture and allied sectors provided 72% of the country’s employment, more than half of the gross national product, and about half of the National Income. The Partition created further imbalance. A major part of India’s population was under the poverty line. So the govt. was to nitiate a growth process in agriculture and was faced with a challenge. It laid out a set of goals to be implemented by adopting a package approach. Throughout the late 1940s and entire of 1950s, Campaigns focusing on food and cash crops were observed. The National Five Year Plans initiated growth in agriculture after 1950. Land reforms and technological developments took place simultaneously. Most of the national goals included land reclamation, land development, consolidation, control of prices and forward thinking, mechanization and industry development. Chemical fertilizers were widely created.
The United Nations Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (APCAEM) aims at promoting sustainable agriculture development for the eradication of poverty by guaranteeing environmental sustainability. Such agro-based environment-friendly technology is termed as Green Technology (GT). Literatures show GT encompasses a continuously evolving group of methods or materials, ...
Diversification of crops was also observed and non-traditional crops such as soybeans and peanuts gradually gained importance. The growth strategy of Indian Agriculture evolved with time in several stages. In the early stages, aims were to eradicate socioeconomic constraints through land reform, change in the village power structure, reorganization of the rural poor into cooperatives, and better citizen participation in planning. The Land Tenure System was aimed to be abandoned (by removing Zamindari system).
Area-specific intensive programmes were implemented.
Production was increasing, but India’s population was rapidly increasing. To meet the rising demands, imports were initiated. In the 1950s, 5% of India’s food grains were imported. In the next decade, this figure soared due to the 2 severe drought years of 1965 – 66 to 7%. In 1966 imports were over 10 million against domestic production of 72 million. The continued shortages in the 1960s and the consequent crises convinced policy makers that raising agricultural output, especially food grains, was essential for political stability and independence from foreign food aid.
The government realized the need for dramatic improvement in food grain production without large imports. This perception led to the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution is referred to the period from 1967 to 1978. This resulted in the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution concentrated on: •Continuous Increase Of Farming Areas •Double Cropping Existing Farmland •Using genetically modified seeds (High Yielding Variety or HYV seeds) Imports aimed to be reduced. The Green Revolution was successful in meeting the goals of self-sufficiency in food-grain production and adequate buffer stocks by the end of the 1970s.
... such as maize, rice, wheat, etc. The green Revolutions impact on farming and food production has caused virulent disputes. Some people argue ... of malnourished people worldwide between 1990and 2006 is 850 million with the high point of 1.023 billion hungry people, ... massive global market for seed, pesticide, and fertilizer corporations” (GRAIN). Experiments studied in the past have came to the ...
Production was more than 100 million tons in 1978 and 1979. Imports were negligible, and the year-end buffer stocks from 1976-79 averaged more than 17 million tons. Buffer stocks rarely fell below 10 million. Buffer stock: A stock of materials held in reserve. Foodgrains production rose from 50. 82 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 244. 78 million tonnes in 2010-11. The 1990s saw a gradual decline in investments towards irrigation and other infrastructure necessary for agriculture Economic liberalization was effected to promote growth of industries from 1991.
In the late 1990s, grain reserves were left in huge numbers to the Government. The media called this “grain mountains and hungry millions”. In the mid-1990s, the major goals of agricultural policy continued to be self-sufficiency in food staples and adequate food supplies at affordable prices for consumers. In the 1990s, Wheat had the highest production (increased eightfold), and was followed by rice (increased 350%).
In the 1990s, India was on the verge of self sufficiency of oilseed production prior to its decline in production, when it did not match consumer demands.
The early part of last decade was described as that of political fatigue. Farmers are giving in. The large grain reserves were disappearing along with escalating prices and persistence of widespread under-nutrition. During the current Five Year plan (2007-12), agriculture growth is estimated at 3. 5% against a target of 4. 0%. Droughts were in 2009. Timely and corrective measures taken by the government helped boost agricultural production and growth in agriculture and allied sectors reached 7. 0% in 2010. The Agriculture depends on monsoon.
Y 2 K pessimists are approaching their moment of truth. In seven weeks the world will, or will not, run into more trouble than most people think. Investors will, or will not, suffer last-minute jitters as the millennium draws near. Yes, yes, I knowit's not yet the millennium, from a technical point of view. As a stern band of readers likes to remind me, only morons believe the millennium falls on ...
This is a matter of great concern is the fact that agricultural growth is still, to an extent, characterized by fluctuations due to the vagaries of nature. The country has not witnessed any big technological breakthrough in agriculture since the first Green Revolution. Food Safety for each individual is important and can be achieved through form of a Second Green Revolution. Special attention is required for achieving higher production and productivity levels in pulses, oilseeds, fruits, and vegetables, which had remained untouched in the First Green Revolution but are essential for nutritional security.