Directions: Please use the suggested links to find answers to each of the questions below. Be sure to paraphrase (not copy) the answers/information you find on the internet. All these questions will have parallels in Animal Farm, so be sure to pay careful attention!
For questions #1-2, please refer to your copy of the novel and to this website http://www.k-1.com/Orwell/site/opinion/essays/rhodi.html
1. What was George Orwell’s personal experience of Stalin’s government, and how did this experience become the motivation/basis for Animal Farm? It was a very negative experience with Stalin’s government, which was supporting Totalitarianism. He wrote Animal Farm in order to show the people about the facts of the Russian Revolution and Stalin rise to power. 2. In what year was Animal Farm first published, and what war had just ended? August 17, 1945, and World War II had just ended.
For questions #3-5, refer to the following site:
3. What is socialism?
Any form of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods. 4. What is communism?
A system of government in which the State plans and controls the economy, and a single party holds power, claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people. 5. What are the common goals/failures of socialism and communism? (Hint: utopia means an ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects) Socialism does not advocate the seizure of private property; it advocates the nationalization of the means of production. Communism on the other hand takes away everything, leaving nothing for the individual but what the State deems enough.
Many authors write about topics that they know and about historical events that are going on while they write their story. In the book Animal Farm by George Orwell this is definitely true. Orwell modeled many of his characters after Russian leaders. He ingeniously depicts the troubles of Russia in a book about farm animals. The story begins with a prize winning boar named Old Major, he gathers all ...
Click on “Russian Revolution (1917)” and skim the opening blurb and “Background”—stop at “Political Issues.” 6. Who was the Czar (or Tsar) of Russia before the Russian Revolution (and during World War I)? He was the ruler of Rusia up to 1917 when he was overthrown during the Russian revolution.
7. What became of this Czar and his family during/after the Revolution? The Bolsheviks murdered Nicholas and his wntire family in order to ensure that he would never be able to come back to power again. Under the “Contents” box click on “February Revolution” and skim “long-term causes”, “short-term causes” and “course.” 8. What happened during the February Revolution of 1917 (first phase of the Russian Revolution)? The February Revolution, which removed Tsar Nicholas II from power, developed spontaneously out of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riots on the streets of Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg), during a time when the tsar was away from the capital visiting troops on the World War I front.Though the February Revolution was a popular uprising, it did not necessarily express the wishes of the majority of the Russian population, as the event was primarily limited to the city of Petrograd. However, most of those who took power after the February Revolution, in the provisional government (the temporary government that replaced the tsar) and in the Petrograd Soviet (an influential local council representing workers and soldiers in Petrograd), generally favored rule that was at least partially democratic.
Go back to the “Russian Revolution” page and select “October Revolution” 9. What happened during the October Revolution of 1917 (second phase of the Russian Revolution)? Read the opening info and “outcomes.” The October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution) overturned the interim provisional government and established the Soviet Union. The October Revolution was a much more deliberate event, orchestrated by a small group of people. The Bolsheviks prepared their ‘coup’ in only six months. They were generally viewed as an extremist group and had very little popular support when they began efforts in April, 1917. By October, the Bolsheviks’ popular base was much larger; though still a minority within the country as a whole, they had built up a majority of support within Petrograd and other urban centers. After October, the Bolsheviks realized that they could not maintain power in an election-based system without sharing power with other parties. As a result, they formally abandoned the democratic process in January, 1918 and declared themselves the representatives of a dictatorship of the ‘proletariat.’ In response, the Russian Civil War broke out in the summer of that year and would last well into 1920. 10. Who were the Bolsheviks? Click on the link from “October Revolution” page.
?To what extent was Lenin crucial to the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917? On 24th October 1917 the Lenin and the Bolsheviks led a revolution in Russia. The Bolshevik Red Guards led a revolution against the Provisional Government by seizing control of stations, telephone exchanges, post offices, the national bank and the Winter Palace in Petrograd. Now Lenin set about creating the ...
The Bolsheviks were originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki and were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress. Follow the “Vladimir Lenin” link from the Bolshevik page and from “Contents” select “Head of Soviet state” (read first two paragraphs around the quote); then select the “Russian communist party and civil war” link (read the first two paragraphs); finally, select the “Leninism” link 11. Who was Vladimir Lenin, and what were the major ideas of “Leninism”? Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social and Democratic Labour Party, which later became the Bolshevik party. He led the October Revolution in Russia, becoming the first communist leader of the USSR.
For question # 13, focus on the first and third paragraphs of the following site: http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html 13. Who was Napoleon Bonaparte, and what was his basic personality and style/methods of ruling? Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history. He has also been portrayed as a power hungry conqueror. Napoleon denied those accusations. He argued that he was building a federation of free peoples in a Europe united under a liberal government.
Josef stallin was the leader of the Soviet Union, he was one of the most brutal dictators in history, by the time he died people estimate that he killed 20 million people. 15. What was Stalin’s relationship to Leon Trotsky, and why did Trotsky leave Russia? Trotsky was part of the Bolshevic party during the early years of the USSR. He fought against Stalin for ruling power of the USSR. Stalin won and banished Trotsky 16. What are the differences between Trotskyism and Stalinism (click on “Leon Trotsky” link and there are links to these terms)? Stalinism has some racist ideas and has patriotic ideas. For example, Stalin murdered non-Slavic people although he is not Slavic, Winter War is perfect example in his patriotic ideas. Trotsky does not have ideas like that because he wants to create World-Country. 17. Skim the “purges” link from the Stalin page.
Question 1 Stalin and Trotsky led two very different political careers. Before 1917 Trotsky wasn t even a member of the Bolsheviks, siding with the Mensheviks at the 2 nd party congress in 1903 when the Social Democrats splintered into the two smaller parties: Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. Trotsky sided with the Mensheviks more pacifist views towards revolution and general protests. In fact it wasn t ...
What were they? Who was “purged” or punished from the Soviet Union, and how? Tens of millions of ordinary individuals were executed or imprisoned in labor camps that were little more than death camps. 18. Skim through the “personality cult” link (#12 in contents box)—what is a cult of personality, and who uses such techniques in Animal Farm? A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Why does Lenin (a communist) view religion as a negative influence in the lives of common people? Church lived in feudal dependence on the state, and Russian citizens lived in feudal dependence on the established church, when medieval, inquisitorial laws were in existence and were applied, persecuting men for their belief or disbelief, violating men’s consciences, and linking government jobs and government-derived incomes with the established church.
What were some reasons Lenin and Stalin used propaganda? Skim over the posters what are the posters encouraging people to do? The posters were promoting literacy, gender equality for women, overall there were trying to promote themselves and give them the “good guy” image.