At the height of the Han and Roman Empires, the emergence of technological advancements heavily influenced their societies. These advancements had several benefits in improving the social order of the empires, however they also had their negative effects; the essential argument being that the more elaborate, and intricate the inventions were, the higher they were considered in the social classes. The simpler, craft-like inventions on the other hand, were said to be made by men who are not wise. This mindset and belief was mainly held in the Roman Empire.
The Han Empire had viewed technological advancements as a positive way of aiding in societal use, however their only concern was that the price in goods produced by such forms of technology had significantly increased, not allowing the commoners to buy them. Both the Han and Roman Empires perceived the rise of technology in a positive sense, primarily in their elite classes. Although the Han and Roman both viewed technological advancements in a positive way, some state run technology was viewed in a negative sense; resulting in an increased price of goods that the common, working class could not afford.
Further developing technology during the First Millennium led to innovations that would establish the foundation of a basic infrastructure. In the Han, intricate waterways were created to aid the transportation of goods and basic water regulation for society. In (Doc 1), these basic structures were heavily maintained, and offices in charge of each district were recommended to maintain experienced staff with the ways of water. Technology is a constantly evolving force that would increase efficiency of products on a grand scale. In (Doc 4), the water-powered engine is described as being a great benefit to society.
Technology plays an important role in our everyday lives. The same was true in the first and second centuries B.C. during the Han and Roman empires. These two empires were very powerful during their time and technology was used widely across both. Although the Hans and the Romans both viewed technology as a way to show off their power, the Hans saw technology as a valued and practical application ...
The water-powered engine created by Tu Shih improved the ability to create cast iron, which would be used for agriculture. Iron tools and machinery increased the benefits of cultivation while at the same time, making manual labor less demanding. Knowing that (Doc 4) was government sponsored during the termination of the Mandate of Heaven in Han China, gives a clear explanation as to why the document glorifies government officials, as well as attempting to make the innovations appear to be provided solely for the benefit of those that undergo manual labor.
Since the government had angered several of its people in the process of ending the Mandate of Heaven, they still desired some form of support from their civilians; and assumed that bribery and was the answer. In the Roman Empire, high officials were mesmerized by the thought of such intricacy of rising developments. For instance, the beginning of building roads had Plutarch anxious to begin, for he was paying attention to utility as well as to the benefits of grace and beauty (Doc 6).
In addition, Gracchus had set up stone columns at mile intervals to act as distance indicators, as well as stools to let travelers mount their horses without the assistance of another. Aqueducts especially were great indicators of how convoluted infrastructural development was, and how highly it was held to society. Aqueducts reached the city at different elevations within itself. Their measurements were calibrated and abundant, and the amount of water they produced was made accessible to public and private uses, as well as for pleasure; distributed into different regions such as basins, fountains, and public buildings (Doc 8).
In (Doc 8), the aqueducts are compared to the idle pyramids and Greek works, proving that they are equally ranked among historical developments of such a high caliber. While state technological advancements were perceived as a great benefit to society, many non-state technologies were viewed as beneficial as well. For example, in (Doc 3) , the mortar and pestle was cleverly invented by Fuxi, and over the course of time, was improved to enable the whole body as usage, increasing its efficiency by ten times. Even later, hydropower was applied and the benefit was increased a hundredfold.
Social life is what an individual goes through on an everyday basis. This includes how we socialize in society and interact with others. Social life is very important when dealing with social life. Many sociological theorists have offered information in an effort to fully understand society and how it works. Some of these theorists are some such as Emile Durkheim, Max Weber and Karl Marx. These ...
The mortar and pestle allowed the creation of basic medicine, which undoubtedly strengthened the longevity of the Han Empire and its society. In addition, Roman philosophers believed that the creation of crafts were a necessity to society, however their inventions were not created by wise men (Doc 7).
Although state technologies profited society, they had their negative effects as well. For instance, in (Doc 2) discourses in salt-boiling and iron foundry slowly corrupt the economic structure for those not members of the elite.
Being that the state has monopolized salt and iron trade, tools are ineffective; making salt and iron prices expensive. Much of the common working class cannot afford to buy either product. Furthermore in (Doc 5), Cicero, an upper class Roman political leader believed that it is vulgar and unbecoming to a gentleman all the jobs hired, whose labor is purchased rather than their skill. All craftsmen spend their time in vulgar occupations. Thus, workshops offer no enlightenment.
Overall, the viewpoints of technological advancements in the Han and Roman Empires are perceived to be beneficial to their societies. Unfortunately, these positive perspectives are taken solely from the elite class’ point of view. Being that the documents do not take into consideration the perceptions of the common working class and peasants, they lack a full understanding of how society views these advancements. Many products manufactured by the newly emerged technologies were too expensive for the working class and peasants to afford; one standpoint the documents overlooked.
INTRODUCTION Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim are some of the founding fathers in the Sociological discipline. Each developing the discipline in their respective area, contributed to the social science course becoming what it is today. Durkheim the man who coined the term social facts and some sociological theories on functionalism, division of labour in society, education and social solidarity, ...