child pornography on the Internet
In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of
information readily available. Some of this information can be very useful,
some can be malicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is
one of these problems. Any one person can find child pornography on the
internet with just a few clicks of the mouse using any search engine.
Despite webmaster’s and law enforcement officials’ efforts to control child
pornography and shut down illegal sites, new sites are posted using
several ways to mask their identity.
The Internet provides a new world for curious children. It offers
entertainment, opportunities for education, information and communication.
The Internet is a tool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet
use grows, so do the risks of children being exposed to inappropriate
material, in particular, criminal activity by paedophiles and child
Many children first come in contact with the Internet at a very young
age. Some children become victims of child pornography through close
relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved
with chat services or newsgroup threads. It is usually through these sites
Introduction: - I have been using internet for the past five years. I have heard quite a lot about Credit Card Fraud's, Internet Privacy, etc but i never really thought it was true. I thought it was just some bunch of amateur's who didn't really knew how to use the internet. But just after i started thinking about the internet privacy for my easy. I found that this whole thing in reality was ...
that they meet child pornographers. Children may be asked to send
explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital camera or scanned
from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures on their web
site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography or
Certain efforts have been made to control child pornography
through legislation. In 1977 the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act was
put into Legislation. (U.S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2253) The law
prohibits the use of a minor in the making of pornography, the transport of
a child across state lines, the taking of a pornographic picture of a minor,
and the production and circulation of materials advertising child
pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase, and receipt of
minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, or receipt is to
use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. The
transportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by
any interstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited.
The Child Protection Act of 1984 (U.S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255)
defines anyone younger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a
sexually explicit photograph of anyone 17 years of age or younger is child
pornography. On November 7, 1986, the U.S. Congress enacted the Child
Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U.S. Code : Title 18, Section
2251-2256) that banned the production and use of advertisements for child
pornography and included a provision for civil remedies of personal injuries
suffered by a minor who is a victim. It also raised the minimum sentences
for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than two years to
imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, the U.S.
Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act
(U.S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a
computer to transmit advertisements or visual depictions of child
pornography and it prohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining
Child Pornography Abstract The article examines problem of child pornography that has become an issue of the day. The author gives definition of child pornography and explores the problem and application of the child pornography law by the courts in different countries. It also presents key findings and statistics from various national studies and researches conducted by Children UNO Fund UNISEF, ...
temporary custody or control of children for the purpose of producing child
pornography. On November 29, 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted US
Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it a federal crime to possess three or
more depictions of child pornography that were mailed or shipped in
interstate or foreign commerce or that were produced using materials that
were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. With the
passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime for
anyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade,
induce, or entice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in
any sexual act for which the person may be criminally prosecuted. The
Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amends the definition of child
pornography to include that which actually depicts the sexual conduct of
real minor children and that which appears to be a depiction of a minor
engaging in sexual conduct. Computer, photographic, and photocopy
technology is amazingly competent at creating and altering images that
have been “morphed” to look like children even though those
photographed may have actually been adults. People who alter
pornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under
the law. Abstracts for these laws can be found at
The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly
defines child pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It
also clearly defines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal.
What the legislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of
evidence from an electronic device, namely computers. Also, the current
legislation does not set standards for decrypting child pornography that is
protected. One example is the use of Steganography.
Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hide information in the
form of raw binary code within other files suitable to hold information. The
binary file a file that contains codes which are not part of the ASCII character set. A binary file can contain any type of information that can be represented by an 8 bit byte with a possible 256 values. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) a standard code used for representing information on computer systems and networks. It uses the printing and non-printing characters ...
most commonly used form of Steganography uses the least significant bit
of a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three
bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytes represents a
level of red, blue or green. Since there are eight bits in a byte, there can
be up to 256 different combinations of 1’s and 0’s in a single byte. In the
case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1’s and 0’s represents a
level of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is the
possibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hide
information within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must be
copied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file. This will
change each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by
1 / 2,097,152, depending on whether the bit being copied is the same as
the bit it is replacing. Since the human eye can only physically distinguish
between an average of 250 different colors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is
indistinguishable. Since only one bit of the target bitmap is being used to
store information, the source file can at most be 1/8 of the size of the
target file. In the case of a bitmap, a high resolution picture can easily hold
a lower resolution picture that may contain child pornography.
Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden image using
steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidence for
a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain how
steganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove
in some way that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap
file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court
because there is no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also,
there is no standard approved software that will decode these files. There
are several software programs readily available on the internet which will
1.1 Explain the purpose of storing and retrieving required information Storing information is a process where information is stored or kept within a store house. A storehouse includes places such as cabinets, HDD which is a hard disk drive, memory sticks or floppy disks depending on the kind of information that you are trying to store. Retrieving information is the process of regaining the ...
encode or decode information using the least significant bit algorithm. One
example is called Hide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of
charge, making it easy for child pornographers to hide their work.
Another problem is illicit material that is stored on a remote
computer. If the perpetrator of child pornography does not own the
computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficult for law
enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third party’s computer.
Also, there is currently no legislation that defines what space an a machine
belongs to a specific do