Chinas Political and Cultural Unity The Chinese culture is very ancient and well recognized throughout the world. The development of such a distinct and prestigious civilization has made China the role model for other countries around the world. Around 1750 B.C the first Chinese dynasty, Shang, began to develop. During this time the beginnings of walled towns, productive agricultural system and a system of writing are recognized. Each region of China had its own language, writing system and culture. Due to the misgoverning of the dynasty the Shang lost its Mandate of Heaven to the Zhou kingdom.
The Zhou dynasty continued much of the technological and the agricultural developments of the first rule. There was a direct relation between the population and the growth of the cities, as one grew larger the other also grew. During this period roads begin to be built, land is cultivated and irrigation spreads. As the development of the lands expanded the surrounding regions became separate states, each culturally distinct with its own language resulting in constant warfare. Confucius, who lived during this time of confusion- the Period of Warring States, became famous in his efforts to reestablish order. Under Confucian ideology men are by nature good and have an innate moral sense.This means that man is perfectible. He can be led in the right path through education, especially through his own effort at self-cultivation, within himself, but also through the emulation of models outside himself. Confucius believed that the things that happened in the environment were because of something that man did.
At first, computers lacked any form of operating system. The computer user had sole use of the machine. The user would arrive at the machine armed with his or her program and data, often on punched paper tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and then the machine set to work, until the program stopped. Later, computers came with libraries of support code which were linked to the ...
He believed that man is a part of the natural order and that improper behavior would throw the whole of nature out of order. Confucius emphasized government by goodness he said, The people are like grass, the ruler like the wind; as the wind blows the grass was inclined. The right conduct gives the ruler power. Confucianism urges goodness and benevolence in human affairs and in the government. The first empires were the Qin and the Han. The Qin unified the writing systems, weights and measures, currency and axle lengths throughout the empire. Imperial canals and roads were built during this time. The foundations of The Great Wall of China were established and developed as millions of men died in its building.
The emperor of this period seems to love burying people alive especially those who questioned his authority and policies. He also ordered books to be burned so that undesirable thoughts would not be developed among the common people. There was an abolition of the hereditary feudal relationships and tenure. Land became privately owned and could be brought and sold freely. Status was also no longer inherited yet gained by ones achievement. A great number of rebellions ended the Qin dynasty and began the rule of the Han. The Han power continued the work of the previous dynasty trying to make China unified.
The Chines culture now had a single art, literature, music, philosophy, and administration. As the technology improved the agriculture became more and more productive. The Han armies reconquered the south even beyond the Qin dynasty. There seemed to be no rival for the steadily growing China, which began expeditions in the west. The invention of paper existed during Han China and was commonly used by the first century BC When Han China fell the land became divided again into rival kingdoms for many centuries. During this time the spread of Buddhism was wide from India and became the mass religion during the troubled centuries. Art and literature continued to flourish as an imperial idea that still appealed to national pride. Under the Tang rule renewal of the contact with distant lands expanded as in the Han times. The Song China produced more iron, steel, and goods than the rest of Europe until the mid-eighteenth century.
Han China and Rome were two of the most powerful and popular empires of their time, but they fell like any other empire before them. Han China and Rome’s Empires had the same causes for their declines, but their effects are different. The major reasons for the fall of Rome are truly those that have to do with Rome’s political and economic state. One of the Rome’s problems prior to its fall ...
The mass printing promoted literacy and education and opened opportunities to join very elite groups from which officials were selected. As a result to serve the growth of commerce there was a massive issuing of paper money. Distribution of pamphlets and the promotion of improved farming techniques: irrigation, fertilization, new metal tools, and proto-machines, and improved crop strains advanced. Painting had a glorious development. Sea-routes were now open to trade and helped in the economic development. The last empires, Ming and Qing, restored the Chinese control after the Mongol rule. It promoted the growth of overseas trade, literature, including novels and adventure tales.
By the end of the Qing dynasty China had fallen behind in science and technology. There was a decline in the economic growth as the population over rode the production. The Republic of China founded by Sun Yat- Sen brought nationalism. The Chinese Communist Party was founded in 1921 to build a strong national government. The government failed at first due to the lack of military power and a weak central government. The Peoples republic is still established today and began in 1949.
The government is now much stronger and organized. Political unity after every period of division has been seen. Cultural unity is not only seen in the glory of the empire and the literate culture but also in the way China views the rest of the world. The Chinese view has been to be a model of unity, greatness, development, and culture for those throughout the world who are not yet at such a standard.