Chronic Renal Failure
With chronic renal failure or CRF there’s a gradual and progressive loss of kidney function. According to Medical Terminology a Word-Building Approach p392, Diabetes and hypertension are the two most common causes and account for approximately two thirds of the cases of CRF. One of the main functions of the kidneys is to remove excess water from the body and filter out any wastes.
According to https://health.google.com/health/ref/Chronic+kidney+disease some of the symptoms that occur when CRF first starts are:
* General ill feeling and fatigue
* Generalized itching (pruritus) and dry skin
* Weight loss without trying to lose weight
* Appetite loss and nausea
Here are some symptoms that occur later on as the disease progresses:
* Abnormally dark or light skin
* Bone pain
* Drowsiness and confusion
* Problems concentrating or thinking
* Numbness in the hands feet or other areas
* Muscle twitching or cramps
* Breath odor
* Easy bruising, bleeding or blood in the stool
* Excessive thirst
* Frequent hiccups
* Low level of sexual interest or impotence
* Menstrual periods stop (amenorrhea)
* Sleep problems such as insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), and Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
... (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000471.htm#) Chronic renal failure (CRF, or “chronic kidney failure”, CKF, or “chronic kidney disease”, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal ... disease (ESRD). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic%5Frenal%5Ffailure) Chronic renal failure is the gradual loss of irreversible destruction of the kidneys over a long period ...
* Swelling of the feet and hands (edema)
* Vomiting typically in the morning
According to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000471.htm the final stage of CRF is called end-stage-renal-disease or ESRD. This is the point where the kidneys are no longer able to function properly and the patient will require dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive. This disease causes a buildup of wastes and fluid in the body. This buildup can affect red blood cell production, blood pressure control, and Vitamin D and bone health. Most women with CRF end up with osteoporosis because when the kidneys don’t function properly bones become brittle and thin.
One step patients can take is dialysis. When a patient is on dialysis it’s like they have an artificial kidney. According to http://www.enotalone.com/article/8528.html There are two types of dialysis. About 90 percent of dialysis patients receive hemodialysis. This is the process of the patients blood being circulated outside of the body cleaned through a machine and then returned to the body when it is cleansed. Before a patient can begin hemodialysis they must either have a fistula or a graft made. A fistula is where a doctor goes in to join an artery and a vein under the skin to make a larger vessel. If the patient has no viable fistulas then they might use a soft plastic graft to join an artery and a vein under the skin. The up side to hemodialysis is the patient requires no special training, he or she is monitored regularly by someone trained in providing dialysis.
The other type of treatment, peritoneal dialysis, uses the patient’s own peritoneal membrane as a filter. The peritoneal membrane is a sac around the abdominal organs. This membrane (like the dialysis machine membrane) is semipermeable. Waste particles can get through it, but larger blood cells cannot.
The last type of treatment is the patients last option if all else fails. This is a kidney transplant. A kidney transplant is a very delicate and complicated process. So much could go wrong. Rejection is one of the major upsets of a transplant.
Kidneys In vertebrates, kidneys are the two major organs of excretion. Excess water, toxic waste products of metabolism such as urea, uric acid, and inorganic salts are disposed of by kidneys in the form of urine. Kidneys are also largely responsible for maintaining the water balance of the body and the pH of the blood. Kidneys play important roles in other bodily functions, such as releasing the ...
I believe I have learned so much more about chronic renal failure. I am more informed. The reason why I chose to do my report on this is because where I work right now I have a patient who is 43 and has chronic renal failure, and she is on hemodialysis three times a week. I think doing this will help me better serve my patient. Now that I know so much more I can help her in making better decisions regarding her care.