9th September 2009
Chapters 1 & 2 Short Answers
1. There were several preconditions for motion pictures. First, scientists had to realize that the human eye perceives motion if a series of slightly different images is placed before it in rapid succession- minimally. Second, it had to be technologically capable to project a rapid series of images on a surface. Third prerequisite for the invention of cinema was the ability to use photography to make successive pictures on a clear surface. Fourth, it was required that photographs be printed on a base flexible enough to be passed through a camera rapidly. Lastly, experimenters needed to find a suitable intermittent mechanism for their cameras and projectors.
2. The Nickelodeons spread quickly for several reasons. One of them was that moviegoing became less a novelty and more a regular entertainment. Another reason was shorter workweeks left people with more time for entertainment. In addition, there were different programs almost every day, which made people want to go every day, and it brought a lot of profits to the exhibitors. Nickelodeons were also cheaper than vaudevilles. Audiences to the Nickelodeons sat on benches or in wooden chairs. The early patrons to Nickelodeons were immigrants who came from other countries, blue collar workers, office boys, etc. These theatres usually showed movies from abroad. They showed three films in a program, and they had many programs over a single week.
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3. Beginning in 1904, filmmakers faced the challenge of making story films that would be comprehensible to the audiences. The filmmakers overcame this problem by setting up a chain of narrative causes and effects. On top of that, they made the film so an event was typically caused by a character’s beliefs or desires. Soon, character psychology started to motivate actions. The filmmakers also started using various techniques to help the audience understand the movie. The frmal principles that became known as the classical Hollywood cinema are: Intertitles, Staging in Depth, Camera Position and Acting, Color, and Set Design and Lighting.