Congress of Vienna (1815) In September 1814 – June 1815, the leaders who vanquished Napoleon, European representatives, and those who believe they were in “high circles” gathered together to redraw territorial boundaries and fashion a lasting peace at the end of the Napoleonic wars after the downfall of Napoleon. Dominated by four major victors – Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria set peace term with France in April. signing a crucial document legitimacy (territories should once more be placed under the control of the old ruling houses of the traditional order), and stability (balance power in Europe) light penalty for France and restore it to 1789 boundaries and required France to pay. abolish slave trade the Holy alliance was formed to secure the Vienna settlement Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) In 1904, the Russian angered Japan by increasing it’s presence in China’s Northern Province of Manchuria.
Eventually, the Japanese decided to attack the Russian to keep their power on the Asian Mainland and surprisingly, defeated them both on land and at sea. Eventually, Japanese became the dominant power in Manchuria. Second Reform Act (1867) Caused by the people who are tired and want to gain to the political system tired of the British government who sympathize with movement for national liberation abroad and parade British naval, and national pride. started by the Conservative Party, under Benjamin Disraeli, demand for democratic reform they passed the Reform Bill of 1867 doubled the electorate and gave the vote to the lower-middle class for the first time gathered support from the working class by passing laws that limited working hours, established sanitary codes, created housing standards, and aided labor union. Alfred Dreyfus (1894) In 1894, A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of betrayal and sent to solitary imprisonment on Devil’s Island in South America. France people followed the news from time to time 3 years later, the proof of his innocence appeared.
... nation the recognition of being a great power. The Meiji Era brought about many reforms in Japanese society, in its attempts to become ... Japan. The feudal system that was in place during this time held the shogun (general chief) as political rulers, served by ... retain certain traditional features of their culture at the same time. In 1868, the Imperial Charter Oath was signed on behalf ...
Yet, the high-ranking officers refused to open the cased. Eventually, it divided the nation into two (Left and Right) Republican, socialist, and intellectuals under Zola rallied for Dreyfus. Nationalist, conservative, monarchist, and anti-Semitic force supported the Army in 1899, a second court-martial again convicted Dreyfus for evidence of another’s officer’s guilt. The Republic pardoned him, but it took seven years to get his name fully acquainted marked the battle over anti-semitism, but the victory became a victory for republicanism and anti-clericalism. made them strong enough to separate church with state. Decembrist Revolt (1825) After the death of Alexander I, Nicholas I became the new leader and go for discipline and authority.
(In December 1825) in Russia, a group of young liberal military officers under Nicholas I revolted because they want to write a constitution and free the enslaved laborer Nicholas crushed it immediately and turned against any hints of liberalism. he makes a policy demanding submission of everyone to the autocracy and the Orthodox Church. They gain reputation as liberal political martyr Sergei Witte Russian politician and Finance minister who has aggressive policies for industrialization in 1880 s and rolling in the 1890 s. introduce foreign capital stimulated the growth of the middle and working classes in a lot of cities such as Moscow and St.
... Sardinia joined the Turks to help them defeat Russia's ambitions. Nicholas died before the war ended. His oldest son, Alexander II ... papers. While later in the century during Nicholas II reign the press had gained more freedom and underground newspapers were being ... a revolt of officers and soldiers who had fought in Europe during the Napoleonic wars and favored reform in Russia. This uprising ...
Petersburg. these people were annoyed to the Russian traditional society and archaic government when Russia lost the Russo-Japanese War, he represent them to sign the Treaty of Portsmouth in Summer 1905 in Portsmouth New Hampshire Holy Alliance (1815) An alliance made to be responsible and preserving Vienna Settlement Willingness to intervene other countries for its conservative principle. Conceived by Alexander I, Francis I, and William III, believe in the Christian principle. Russia, Prussia, and Austria first join. Crimean War (1853 – 1856) War between Russia and Ottoman Turks. reasons was complex, but Russia hope to gain territory from the Weakened Ottoman Empire Russia wanted shipping access to the World via the Black Sea through the Turkish Straits and gain influence in the Near East.
Early next year, Russia attacked the Ottoman navy and caused France, Britian, and Kingdom of Sardinia to to be their enemy. More than 250, 000 soldiers died (diseases) No one could claim the victory became the major turning point in the political history.