Why do we use theories to explain child development and learning? They help us predict what will happen next, and they help us explore the who, what , when , where and, why of everyday experiences.
Define classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is: the learning that takes place based on an association of stimulus that does not elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit a response. Operant conditioning is:a process in which a response is gradually learned via reinforcement or punishment. How are they the same? They are the same because they are both are gradual process. How are they different? They are different because in Classical conditioning stimulus comes before the behavior. With Operant conditioning stimulus comes after the behavior.
Give an example of each. An example of Classical conditioning would be, how in my pre-k class I started the year out with this tool called a ¨No Yell¨ Bell. This Bell has 7 different sounds. I use each sound for a different purpose. The one sound is a outer space like sound. I use this sound for the class to know that when the hear this sound that means it is library time. It is now to the point that when they see the bell in my hands they stop to see what sound will play. An example of Operant conditioning would be, how when my sister tells my nephew he is going to see Aunt Cole, he always says ¨Cole, Cole, cake!¨ This would be because one of the first times he visited my house he was upset over something, after several attempts to console him and figure out the problem, I offered him cake. It dissolved him emotional issue and created a happy one. To this day he thinks I have cake when he visits, and I do of course. In this case I used positive reinforcement by using some this pleasant to help his emotional meltdown.
Classical, operant, and observational are all types of conditioning and learning. Conditioning, in psychology, is causing an organism to exhibit a specific response to a stimulus. A stimulus is anything that Classical conditioning is a form of learning, in which a reflexive or automatic response transfers from one stimulus to another. For instance, a person who has had painful experiences at the ...
Describe the nature versus nurture debate. Well the nature vs. nurture debate is best described by stating that, the nature theory is the thought that people behave as they do according to genetic predispositions or even ¨animal instincts¨. The nurture theory is the thought that people think and
behave in a certain way do to the fact that they are taught to do so.
Choose which theorist/ theory from the list below describes the child’s development in the scenario. Only one theory per scenario. You will use each theory only once.(14 points total) Scenarios
An infant has developed a strong attachment to his care giver and cries when she leaves a the end of the day. A one year old takes her first steps after pulling up and standing on the shelf.
A two year old picks up a wooden block and pretends it is a telephone.
To encourage her son to tie his own shoes, she shows him step by step and then watches and coaches to help him succeed.
An infant cries each night and her parents come into her room to comfort her.
A child is delayed in his development but is able to attend a community preschool which promotes his growth and development while also supporting his impoverished family.
A preschooler is watching another child climb the ladder on the playground. After watching repeatedly, she starts the climb herself for the first time.
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-ecological Theory
B.F. Skinner’s Behaviorism
Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Man
Early Deprivation on the Development of Institutionalised Children Abstract Deprivation is defined as a reduced fulfillment of an essential desire or need. Studies on the development of children reared in institutions and orphanages help us to look at the effects of deprivation. Institutionalised children are reported to perform poorly on intelligence tests and to be slow learners with specific ...
Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Jean Piaget’s Stages of Intellectual Development
Arnold Gesell’s Maturational Theory