Nicholas I and Nicholas II both struggled with similar uncertainties of a possible revolution. Both came to a conclusion with a strong resemblance, and yet at the same time remained drastically different when their rule ended. While the names may suggest that Nicholas I was the father of Nicholas II, Nicholas I was actually Nicholas II’s great granduncle. The summarized history of their terms below will tell of and compare the Nicholas’ reigns of the Russian monarchy. Nicholas I (1796-1855) was born at Tsarskoe Selo, the third son of Czar Paul I. Nicholas came to throne in 1825 after his brother Alexander I had died and his older brother Constantine had given up his claims to the throne.
Nicholas’ first action was to put down, with great harshness, a revolt of officers and soldiers who had fought in Europe during the Napoleonic wars and favored reform in Russia. This uprising occurred in the month of December and the rebels became known in Russian history as ‘Decembrists.’ ; The new czar ordered the principal leaders killed and the rest exiled to Siberia. He felt there was something wrong with the government of the country, and he thought that Russia needed more discipline rather than liberal reform. Nicholas ordered the codification of Russian laws, reformed finances, and attempted to set limits to serfdom. He made the censorship of newspaper and all opinion even stricter than before, and set up a secret police organization with spies throughout the country. These new measures made him and his government unpopular to say the least.
Russian Reform and Economics: The Last Quarter of the 20th Century Outline Thesis: As the reformation of the USSR was becoming a reality, Russia's economy was crumbling beneath it. Russia began its economic challenge of perestroika in the 1980's. The Russian people wanted economic security and freedom, while the government was trying to obtain democracy. The previous management styles needed to be ...
Nicholas’ foreign policy was directed towards the east. He increased Russian territory at the expense of Persia soon after he came to the throne. In 1828 he fought a war with Turkey and won the Eastern Shore of the Black Sea and a protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia for Russia. With great severity he put down a revolt of the Poles in 1831 and in 1849 he sent his troops into Austria to help the emperor put an end to a rebellion of the Hungarian subjects. Nicholas hoped to drive the Turks out of Europe.
As an excuse for another war he demanded a protectorate over all Christian subjects in Turkey. This demand clashed with British and French interests and brought on the Crimean War in 1853. France and Sardinia joined the Turks to help them defeat Russia’s ambitions. Nicholas died before the war ended. His oldest son, Alexander II followed him as Czar. Nicholas II (1868-1918) was born at Tsarskoe Selo, then son of Alexander III and the grandson of Alexander II.
He received a military education and traveled through Greece, Egypt, India, and Japan before he became czar. In 1849, he received the crown and married the German princess Alexandra of Hesse, who bore four daughters and a son. Russian liberals had hoped the new czar, who was a pleasant and friendly young man, would grant badly needed reforms and lift his country to a position among the free, progressive nations of the world. Nicholas was wholly unsuited to rule as an autocratic sovereign and he was dominated by conservative and reactionary persons.
By 1905 the demands for reform following the defeats in the war with Japan led to a general strike and several uprisings. All of these were put down with much bloodshed, but Nicholas was forced to issue the ‘October Manifesto’; which promised civil liberties and a legislative body representing the people called the ‘Duma’; . However even with these reforms, there was very little progress toward a liberal government. The Czar, contrary to his promise, changed the electoral law.
The Duma was brought under control, and political liberties were greatly restricted. Nicholas suggested the peace conference at The Hague in 1899. But his policy in the Far East brought about a war with Japan in 1904 which ended with Russia’s defeat. In July 1914, Russia came to the aid of Serbia when Austria, who maintained German support, declared war.
: I. -18-02010 Arkhangelsk Archangel, city, northern European Russia, capital of Arkhangelsk Oblast, on the Northern Dvina (Severnaya Dvina) River, near the White Sea (Beloye More). It is a major seaport, although icebound in winter months. The city is also a trade and processing center for an important timber-producing region. A maritime school, a forestry institute, and a regional museum are ...
France and Britain came to the aid of their Russian ally and World War I began. In this war the inefficiency, dishonesty, and blindness of Nicholas’ government brought Russia to such a terrible condition that people of all classes lost confidence in the Czar, the Czarina, and their advisers. In March 1917 the czarist regime collapsed. Nicholas was forced to give up his throne, and a provisional government survived until the Bolsheviks overthrew it in November 1917. Nicholas and his family were arrested and removed to Ekaterinburg in eastern Russia. There, on July 16 1918, they were shot by orders of Soviet officials.
These two Czars ruled throughout the 1800’s, fighting and pushing down their own people. While uprising and revolutions became inevitable, both Czars used the same tactics although they both came to different conclusions. Nicholas I killed any whom dare threaten his regime, as did Nicholas II. The reason Nicholas I kept control of his subjects was censorship.
The Russian papers never covered the massacres Nicholas I inflicted because the throne ran the Russian papers. While later in the century during Nicholas II reign the press had gained more freedom and underground newspapers were being distributed throughout a larger area. More people were educated about the world around them. Nicholas II was a man with no people skills; he would only make public appearances and or public speeches until they became necessary to remain in control.
Nicholas I kept in touch with his surrounding and dealt with matters swiftly and harshly while Nicholas II would turn the other cheek not wanting confrontation. Basically the czarist regime was destroyed because Nicholas II was not a leader he was a follower. You can not have a ruler who is a follower.