Delhi The History of Delhi Delhi is one of the most ancient cities in the world. The city witnessed blossoms and collapses of many world civilizations. Yet, there is no consensus among the scientists as to the history of Delhi and exact quantity of settlements in the territory of Delhi. According to Sajad Ahmed Chan, the cities replaced each other in the following order: Indraprastha (Indrapat) ruled by Pandavas brothers (approximately 1450 BC), Lal Kot (or Qila Rai Pithora) approximately 1060 AD, Siri (1304 AD), Jahanpanah, Tughlakabad, Ferozabad, Dinpanah, and, finally, Delhi (Encyclop?dia Britannica 2007).
Delhi is first mentioned in the ancient Mahabharata epos. As it is supposed by the modern scientists, the legendary Indraprastha was located on the riverside of Yamuna river. Pandavas brothers won the city back from the aborigines and called it in honor of the God Indra.
Nowadays one can only guess why the ancient people left Indraprastha. However, when Indraprastha was erased from the Earths surface, the king Dehlu (Dhilu) decided to build a new city. The modern name Delhi takes its origin from the word Dilli. Actually, Dilli is the first mentioning of the city made by Ptolemy, who visited India in the 2nd century and plotted geographic place Daidala on his map. Prithviraja, the most famous representative of the Chauhana dynasty, is mentioned in the Muslim chronicles under the name Rai Pithora. During the period of his government Lal Kot was enlarged. This period is also known as the period of blossom.
The Essay on To Understand The Most Important Characteristics Of A Society, One Must Study Its Major Cities
It is true,”People living in major cities are mosaic of the society, from which they belong”. Hence I believe if someone really wants to get a prospective about a society, one should study its major cities first. Major cities have always been the center of power, economy and politics in any civilization. People from all over the states migrates from their homes to a common place, ...
Siri (1304 AD) was built by Alauddin Khilji, known for his trade reforms. No wonder that Siri became a major trading centre. Tughlaqabad (1321-23 AD) was built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. It was soon replaced by Jahanpanah, built in the mid XIV century by Mohammad- bin-Tughlaq. Ferozabad (1354) was built by Feroze Tughlaq. Dilli Sher Shahi (1534) was built by Humayun and completed by his overthrower Sher Shah Suri. In the mid XVII century Shah Jahan moved the capital of India to Shajahanabad. Finally, in the 1920s the seat of power was moved from Calcutta to Delhi. Since those times Delhi has been announced and remained the capital of India.
Environmental challenges Delhi, being the capital of India, faces several environmental challenges. The most important environmental challenges are posed by the rapid growth and development of the capital. These relate to pollution, energy consumption issues, depletion and deterioration of water resources. The level of pollution is very high, as Delhi is the fourth most polluted city in the world in terms of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) (Gadhok 2007).
Gadhok asserts that only approximately 2% of Delhis industrial units are in approved industrial areas. The noise level also exceeds permissible levels in the city. Air pollution is, probably, the matter of primary concern, because of rapid growth in the number of vehicles in Delhi.
As it is claimed by Benoit Lefevre, the very structure of urban space should be modified in order to cut travel demand, especially concerning private cars, as transport in Delhi is the main source of energy consumption. For example, in Delhi alone the quantity of cars and other vehicles (as far as the vehicles are the main sources of pollutant emissions) is increasing consistently (2.24 million in 1994, and 4.18 million vehicles in 2004, correspondingly, with the annual rate of increase of 6.5%).
In order to cope with this issue Delhi has introduces some programs aimed to improve the environmental effectiveness of the vehicles (e.g. NCG (Natural Gas Conversion) programme. According to Benoit Lefevre, due to this programe 45,000 ricks haws, 4,000 minibuses, all the 7,400 bus, i.e. a total of more than 75,000 vehicles have been converted to natural gas, supplied by more than one hundred natural gas stations. (Lefevre 3).
Abstract Environmental health addresses all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviors. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments (WHO, 2001). This is what the several ...
Logically, in case the government continues its attempts to cope with environmental challenges, it will be possible to overcome them without hampering growth. Health Due to overpopulation and environmental challenges, Delhi faces several health issues. According to Delhis vital statistics, the birth rate (per 000 population) is 28.21 (rural), and 20.50 (urban).
The death rate is quite high due to plenty of diseases and poor living conditions (although it is somewhat lower compared to general death rate statistics in India).
For example, rural urban death rate in Delhi is 4.35 (per 000 population) compared to Indias 9.7. Urban death rate is 6.17 compared to Indias 6.6 correspondingly. Infant mortality rate per 1.000 live births is relatively low (0.81 compared to Indias 77), urban 35.54 compared to Indias 45. Deaths 804.05, versus live births 2841.46 (in lakhs).
However, infant deaths index is quite high (8.896 deaths per year) (Social Statistics in Delhi 2007).
Indian government undertakes all possible efforts to improve the situation by consistently developing and implementing national and local health policies. For example, the latest National Health Policy is aimed to set up a well-dispersed network of comprehensive primary health care services, linked with extension and health education, designed in the context of the ground reality that elementary health problems can be resolved by the people themselves (National Health Policy in India 2002).
There are several National Health Programmes, such as National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (2005), National Filaria Control Programme, National Leprosy Eradication Programme, Revised National TB Control Programme, National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme, to mention a few. Indian government actively develops medical education and training initiatives, environmental plans for Drug and Food Testing Laboratories, etc. The basic health indicators for the nation in which Delhi is located are as follows: Prevalence of underweight children (under-five years of age) is 46, Proportion (%) of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption 21, Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and age 5) 85, Infant mortality rate 57, Maternal mortality ratio 301, Malaria death rate per 100,000 0.09, Tuberculosis prevalence rate per 100,000 – 312 (India Country Health System Profile 2007).
Safeguards Against Imperialism After a country attains independence, it begins the long road to stability. Economic stability is a very important aspect of a nation's independence. New countries are very vulnerable to the greedy hands of the more developed industrialized nations, so their leaders must devise means to strengthen their nation's economy and keep the money within its own borders. ...
Housing The housing situation in Delhi, India, became quite poor after 1947, when Delhi experiences the inflow of refugees due to the partition of Pakistan and India. To a certain extent deterioration of housing situation was also caused by the fact that Delhi became the national capital of India.
During these periods, the government was undertaking some efforts to improve situation, but building activity was unable to satisfy inhabitants of Delhi due to rapidly increasing population. Due to this, a relatively large proportion of Delhis population had to settle down in congested areas and unauthorized buildings and dwellings, or even to seek shelter as squatters in slums. Traditional dwellings in Old Delhi have no well-planned structure. In their majority they comprise of old two, three or more stories structures and have high quantity of single-room housing units. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, there are many old one-story bungalows in the Civil Lines area. In New Delhi the government housing colonies have been laid out in a lavish manner and are grouped by income.
Indian government supports housing programs and initiatives aimed to rehabilitate old housing and to build the new ones. This program is administered by Indian agencies, like various municipal governments, the government of the national capital territory, the Delhi Development Authority, and also by cooperatives and individuals. Tourism/Religious Center Delhi, being one of the most ancient cities all over the world, has many reasons why it is so attractive to tourist and religious groups. Delhi comprises of two cities: the old Delhi and new Delhi, – the modern city built in the 1930s. Bright colors, street and spontaneous Indian markets noises are replaced by reserved luxury of New Delhi. In general, Delhi is an elegant city, as it is less influenced by business vanity of vanities, compared to other Indian megapolises.
The Music of India Indian music is a very varied type of music which ranges from classical to film, more commonly known as pop. Both types are extremely popular throughout the Indian society in all classes. Music is apparent in Indian culture as a way of expression. The history of Indian music extends back many centuries. Traditionally in that period, there were various kingdoms, in which the ...
There are many architectural relics and monuments of the past. The tourists are offered to visit Humayun’s Tomb, Old Fort, Safdarjung Tomb (one of the finest examples of Indian architecture), Jantar Mantar, Red Fort (3 kilometers in perimeter), Qutab Minar (being built either as a minaret to the adjacent mosque, or a victory tower).
Delhi is so rich in temples of all world religions, that it may be called the world religious center. The number of temples is so high that the mosque minaret may be located very close to the Buddhist temple, and the dome of Christian church may be set in contrast to Hinduism religious units. As far as Delhi is also the religious center, the tourists are attracted by Delhis places of worship, such as Jama Masjid (known as the largest mosque in India), The Bahai Temple (the ‘Taj Mahal of the 21st century), Nizam-Ud-Din Shrine, Lakshmi Narayan Temple, ISKCON Temple, Chattarpur Mandir, Bangla Sahib Gurudwara, and Sisgunj Gurudwara, to mention a few. Works Cited “Delhi.” Encyclop?dia Britannica. Encyclop?dia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite.
Chicago: Encyclop?dia Britannica, 2007 Gadhok, Taranjot Kaur. Risks in Delhi: Environmental concerns. 16 August 2007 . India Country Health System Profile. 16 August 2007 . Lefevre, Benoit. Urban transport, the environmental challenge posed by the growth of Indian cities.
Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris. Cerna: Centre dEconomie Industrielle (Cerna), n.d. National Health Policy in India. 16 August 2007 . Social Statistics in Delhi. 16 August 2007 ..