Ethical Analysis According to EPAGLOa, the acceptable risk is defined as level of risk judged to be outweighed by corresponding benefits or one that is of such a degree that it is considered to pose minimal potential for adverse effects (US Environmental Protection Agency, n.p.).
Lets examine the potential risk for the employer based on the list of the following candidates: This essay applies the moral principles of Judeo-Christian ethics to the fundamental federal tax policy issues based on the morally required level of the revenues that should be increased. The essay also dwells on the tax burden that should be allocated among the taxpayers correspondingly to their levels of wealth and income (Susan Pace Hamil n.p.).
Judeo-Christian Principles applied to the tax policy As far as Judeo-Christian principles represent the heritage of traditions of Christian social service to people, applying Judeo-Christian principles means stable and settled development of our society and providing the citizens with a reasonable opportunity to reach their potential, and allocate the burden for paying the taxes under a moderately progressive model (Hamil 679).
The economy and federal tax policy should serve people and should be based on the principles of equality, freedom and brotherhood, as well as personal immunity and sanctity of the home. Applying Judeo-Christian principles also means applying the basics of Christian traditions and conscience as well as integrating it into the sphere of federal tax policy issues, economy, law, foreign policy, people, and management. Judeo-Christian principles require adequate tax revenues supporting reasonable opportunity (680).
Public debt is also known as government debt. It involves the total amount of money that is owned by any government at a particular time as the government engages in deficit spending. Tax cut can be achieved through different ways. First, the government can cut its expenditure as the individuals increase theirs on commodities that are sourced from within, the government can maintain its ...
Federal tax policy is a compulsory payment created by the government to raise the revenues to meet public needs. On the other hand, these public needs embrace the variety of spheres such as law enforcement, the courts, and defense. The law should control tax policy as some of the people will never pay their share to the government due to the greed, identified by Judeo-Christian ethics as an integral part of the human condition due to the Fall of the humankind (680).
On the other hand, the compulsory nature of taxes raises ethical issues of justice that require treating everyone in our society equally and fairly. As far as Judeo-Christian principles integrated into the economy and federal tax policy embrace strong, socially-oriented democratic government, social protection of our population, reinforcement and strengthening of the social basis of economic and governmental reforms by the method of support of our population, Judeo-Christian standards of justice express special concern for those with little wealth and power, and require those at higher levels of income and wealth to endure real economic sacrifices beyond their voluntary efforts of beneficence and charity (681).
Besides, general ideology of Judeo-Christian principles applied to the economy and law consists of the totality of efforts to work to help people.
Judeo-Christian principles suppose that charity can be a proper substitute for the revenues raised under a just tax structure (682) and assume that people are able to overcome the sin of greed. As far as the real economic sacrifices are necessary, federal tax policy is one of the most important tools to measure the authenticity of the community claiming to be the people of God (682).
The Bible provides us with ethical principles related to justice that can be applied and used in economic issues such as federal tax policy. For example, the Old Testament prohibits oppression. This Judeo-Christian principle of justice can be directly applied to the burden of paying taxes regardless of the levels of income and wealth. The Bible also dwells on a high level of moral, economic, political and religious culture based on the postulate that culture is the base of our whole life and the key to our future, as well as on implementation of the policy of spiritual, cultural renovation and development of our society in general and personality in particular, giving an individual a reasonable opportunity to reach his potential.
Women are often trapped in an essentially idle, domestic role, praised for purity and lack of sexual desire, pampered as ornaments, but given no effective life functions other than demonstrating a few social graces and bearing children, as is established by the Judeo-Christian ethic and is reinforced in the story of Ruth. Though the story of Ruth appears in the Old Testament, its relevance is not ...
The essence of this assumption originates from creation theology: each individual is able to develop his/her potential as a matter of biblical justice (686).
Facing economic injustice in relation to the federal tax policy, the infrastructure of justice is questionable. Examining the level of adequate and moderate revenues, the federal tax policy must also set forth how the burden of paying the taxes will be borne among taxpayers at different levels of income and wealth (694).
Judeo-Christian principle of justice forbids oppression and condemns as immoral all tax structures that burden those below the poverty line or that have regressive effects within the income range of the lower middle class (696).
One of the solutions related to this problem is to replace the moderately progressive income tax structure with a flat or consumption tax model (722).
The other solution aims to impose a single 17% flat rate on wages and other earned income while exempting from the tax base all forms of investment income (723).
However, despite of optimistic proposals, the morally required level of the revenues hardly will be increased, whereas the wealthiest classes will get considerable savings.
In such a way, the desirability of the proposed solutions is extremely low if it should be spoken within the context of Judeo-Christian principles applied to the federal tax policy. Bibliography – Hamill, Susan Pace. An Evaluation of Federal Tax Policy Based on Judeo-Christian Ethics. Virginia Tax Review, vol. 25, num. 3 (winter 2006).
he society and the economy at large. I think the tax laws pertaining to health care have been successful in making health care insurance more accessible, and in keeping health care costs confined to an affordable range. However, there are times when our representatives in Washington attempt to engineer people’s behavior, not to address the greater needs of the society, but to appease one lobby or ...
The University of Alabama, School of Law..