1. Experimental group receives treatment in an experimental design. 2. Control group does not receive treatment in an experimental design. 3. A Small n design has many observations on a single case or a few subjects. 4. When separate groups of subjects receive different levels of the independent variable, this is referred to as Between Subject design. 5. When all subjects receive all levels of the independent variable, this is referred to as Within Subject design. 6. When the researcher measures a behavior that needs to be changed and then applies therapy and measures the behavior again, this is referred to as AB design.
7. When the researcher measures a behavior that needs to be changed, applies therapy and measures the behavior again, and then removes the treatment and measures the behavior again, this is referred to as ABA design. 8. When the criterion outcome changes over time this is referred to as Changing Criterion design. 9. When measuring several behaviors or several people with baseline periods of varying lengths and an independent variable occurs, this is referred to as a Multiple Baseline design. 10. When subjects are not randomly assigned and not all variables are under the control of the presenter, this is referred to as Quasi-Experimental design.
A. Multiple BaselineB. Small nC. AB
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D. ControlE. ExperimentalF. ABA
G. Between SubjectH. Quasi-ExperimentalI. Changing Criterion
J. Within Subject
Read the following scenarios and match each scenario with the correct type of experimental design.
1. ___C__ Two classes of children are studied regarding the effects of a new teaching method in science. One group received the new method of instruction, while the other group uses the standard, traditional method of instruction. Both classes are measures for achievement before and after the teaching methods.
2. __E___ Divide your subjects in half. One group receives one treatment of the independent variable and the other group receives a different treatment of the independent variable. Subjects were all told they were going to see a video of a therapist’s session after which they would rate the quality of the session. The groups differed in that the subjects in one group were told that prior evaluations indicated that the therapist was effective whereas subjects in the other group were told that the evaluations indicated the therapist was not effective. These different subjects were used for the two levels of the independent variable: subjects were in either the “effective therapist” or the “ineffective therapist” condition.
3. __B___ All subjects perform at all levels of the independent variable. Subjects diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder were each tested on a concentration task after receiving medication. All subjects were tested four times, once after receiving one of the four doses. Each subject was tested under each of the four levels of the independent variable-dose of medication. 4. ___B__ A small group is measured for the amount of anxiety they experience in math class (baseline).
They are taught a relaxation method and measured again to measure anxiety in math class.
5. __D___ To study verbal commands in canines, during week 1 the baseline is recorded for how many times a dog chased a cat. During week 2, dog was verbally scolded (treatment) when the dog chased the cat, and the chasing behavior was recorded. During week 3, the chasing behavior was recorded without the verbal scolding (treatment).
The scientific method makes use of a wide range of approaches and is a perspective that is seen better as an overall rather than use of single specific method. The already adopted scientific method initially was founded on the positivism concept. This included the search for descriptive general laws, which natural phenomena could be predicted with. Scientists were able to control the phenomena ...