The formation of the First Triumvirate took place because of the political motives and the personal motives of the three ruthlessly ambitious power brokers in Rome. These men required the co-operation of the other two in order to further their political careers. During the time of the First Triumvirate many extraordinary powers where obtained and in some cases these where unprecedented. There are some key factors that have to be considered towards the break down of the Triumvirate. The most powerful and influential people, the Optimates became increasingly dis empowered, and a sense of desperation to regain power is felt with the use of Pompey in an a final attempt to restore power to the Senate. By uncompromising refusal to meet the demands of Pompey, Caesar and Crassus the senate naturally drove them into each others arms.
The three men agreed to form a political amicitia .. Pompey upon return from his successful campaign in the East, disbanded his army probably to diffuse tension in Rome and prove to the Optimates in Rome he had no intention of over throwing the Government. This suggests Pompeys political naivety and the fact that Pompey thought he had done enough in order to get recognition and acceptance from the Optimates to gain land for his veterans and to have his innumerable arrangements in the East ratified. Cato also refused Pompeys offer of marriage to one of his nieces. According to Bradley Cato was a staunch conservative, and distrusted Pompeys motives Crassus had a problem with his supporters. He supported a request from a company of tax gatherers (Equites), that after realizing Asia had been economically raped, and virtually un-taxable due to the Mithradatic campaign, could not possibly make money from taxes, so the request he supported is that the Senate should adjust the bad bargain to on a third rebate which they had made in contracting for the taxes of Asia. This request according to Scullard was rejected under Catos leadership which had led to the stagnation of Crassus political career. Thus Crassus needed some support of Pompey and Caesar to kick start his career and eventually lead to the formation of the First Triumvirate.
* Black Power is a phrase that has instilled both pride and hope *into the souls of black people, while simultaneously striking fear into *the hearts of whites. 'No two words in contemporary American society have *been more controversial or misunderstood than Black Power' (Fager, cover). *This "misunderstanding" is what made the Black Power Movement so receptive *among African-Americans, but ...
Caesar, who had been Propraetor in Spain during, 61BC, hoped to return to Rome in 60BC and stand for the consulship for the following year. On his return he wanted a triumph and the consulship, but since he could not as a commander enter the city to stand for election, he asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia. The senate refused, Caesars political career for future glory and fame had ended. According to Bradley Caesar now saw the possibilities for exploiting the difficulties that Pompey and Crassus where having with the Optimates. Caesar needed powerful supporters in order to be elected, particularly since Cato and his associates, Put all their resources behind one of his competitors, Biblus (Catos son-in-law).
A sense of desperation to fight Caesar politically is shown here by the Optimate faction. Upon formation many laws where passed, Lex Argaria (land for Pompeys veterans ).
Pompeys eastern settlement was confirmed, secured rebate on Asiatic tax, Lex Vatinia (gave Caesar provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyreium for 5 years), laws against extortion and Clodius transferred to the Plebeians to qualify as a tribune and to act on Caesars behalf, and to safe guard the interests of the Triumvirs. Caesars actions must be seriously considered towards the breakdown and the increase of violence in Rome. Desperation by the Optimates is constantly shown against him. Caesars actions where unconstitutional. He applied force (using Pompeys veterans) to scare the assembly and ignored the obstruction of the tribunes and of his fellow consuls. With the employment of Clodius as Caesars agent and to manage Caesars affairs in Rome, Clodius who hated Cicero kicked Cicero out of Rome, Cicero seeked helped from Pompey the Great, but he too could not help Cicero nor could the most influential people the Optimates against Clodius mere street gang.
Gaius Julius Caesar was a powerful military leader who changed the course of the Greco-Roman civilization decisively and irreversibly. Julius belonged to Rome's original Aristocracy, the patricians, or landholding upper class, and his lineage can be traced back to the goddess Venus. While growing up Caesar dreamed of being like Alexander the Great who had already conquered what at Caesar's time ...
So Cicero went on voluntary exile, many people believed this to be the death of the Republic. Clodius the thug paid to become Tribune by Caesar also giving Pompey a hard time, halted in a stale mate against Pompeys newly paid for gang under the leadership of Milo. Pompey thinking Crassus played a part in this thought Crassus wanted Pompey dead, thus creating friction in the Triumvirate. Caesar who does not want total instability in Rome, as it is inconvenient for him to due the face that he is not in Rome, tries to patch up rifts in the Triumvirate, hence the renewal. This was done at a meeting at Luca in Gaul, in March 56Bc. It was successful, Some 120 senators then toiled all the weary way to Luca to wait their masters 1 The man they wanted to see was Caesar the Power Broker. Pompey and Crassus entered on their second joint consulship, and Pompey received consulship in Spain for 5 years and Crassus 5 years in Syria, both wealthy provinces. Caesars procunsular command in both Gaul and Illyricum for 5 years until late in 50BC (according to Scullard).
Crassus went of to Syria to seek his ultimate glory, military success in the Parthian war.
Apart from the increase in the political uncertainty and the escalating violence in Rome and war being predicted as a matter of when not if. Two events soon destroyed the Triumvirate 2 In 53 one of the chief bonds between Pompey and Caesar snapped when Pompeys wife, Julia died. When Caesar offered to renew the marriage alliance, Pompey declined and in 53BC married Cornelia (member of an Optimate clan).
In this same year the death of Crassus, another Bridge, or buffer, between the two remaining Triumvirs was gone. 1 Dictatorship of Anarchy seemed evident. The Gang warfare culminated in the murder of Clodius by Milo.
Thus these events lead to the break down of the First triumvirate. The Senate declared martial law and gave Pompey as procunsul charge of a special levy. Thus ending the official alliance and heading for civil war shortly. The short term advantages for each man ending in a halt, further ambition was yet to come, with only a sole victor. It can also be suggested that a reason for the formation and breakdown of the First Triumvirate is the denial by the Optimates of the individual requests of the 3 men, is thought to be that, experience from the past taught the Optimates that able and popular generals with client armies were a great dancer to the Senates power. Yet by denying the requests brought the three men into each others arms and formed the Three Headed Monster.
Brutus and Caesar Brutus was a trusted friend of Caesar and an honorable man, or so you thought. In William Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Brutus is presented as a loyal companion to Caesar showing himself as honorable only to turn around and betray his friend by death. This to me does not sound like the act of an honorable man. Can a man who is honored, be honorable? Brutus was a ...