Oil spills have often occurred too many times in this world. Unfortunately, when this does happen, there is always losses of life. Many people are affected by it. There is always a price to pay. On March 24, 1989 the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilt all its oil into the ocean. Going about twelve miles per hour, the doubt of a oil spill was highly unlikely.
But, when the oil tanker hit Bligh Reef in Alaska’s Prince William Sound, the worst oil spill in United States history occurred. Consequently, more than eleven million gallons of oil spued into the ocean. In addition, more than thirteen hundred miles of shoreline was coated with oil. Furthermore, the slick would have covered more than three football fields in width.
It was the fifty-third ranked spill in the world and the worst the United States has ever seen. Many places would be contaminated by the oil. Not only did the oil spill into the ocean, it also got on shore. More than one thousand miles of shore line was hit by the oil. It hurt the small towns along Alaska, Canada, and even parts of Russia that depend on fishing and the sea life. Many species were affected by it.
... BP oil spill did not start until three months after the spill; causing hundreds of more creatures to perish in the choking ocean waters ... the oil cleanup had begun. Although the spill has been cleaned up, at least half of the oil remains trapped 5,000 miles under ... water and may never be reached. Even though the BP oil spill is now ...
The disaster destroyed many sea creatures. More than 250, 000 birds were wiped out. Over 2, 800 sea otters were killed. Analysis showed that there are two recovered species. These species are the bald eagle and the river otter. Also, there are eight recovering species.
These are the black oystercatcher, common murre, marbled murrelet, mussel, Pacific herring, pink salmon, sea otter, sockeye salmon, and intertidal and sub tidal flora and fauna. Unfortunate, there are six un recovered species. Common loon, cormorant, harbor seal, harlequin duck, pigeon guillemot, and others are among these. In addition, there are four species of unknown recovery. They include the cutthroat trout, dolly v arden, ‘s murrelet, and rockfish. Not only were the fish affected, but also the humans.
Thousands of fisherman were hurt by the spill. In fact, more than 10, 000 fisherman that work the waters of Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet, and Kodiak Island received money from Exxon. Exxon estimated that the losses to commercial fisheries amounted to $113 million. Exxon paid the fisherman $286. 8 million in compensatory damages. Because of the spill, Exxon was ordered to pay five billion dollars in punitive damages to commercial fisherman, Alaska natives, property owners, and others harmed by the spill.
The money was split up in certain ways. First, $213. 1 million went towards reimbursements. Second, $180 million went towards research, monitoring, and restoration. $392 million went to habitat protection. Third, $108 million went to restoration reserve.
Last, $31. 1 million went to science management, public information, and administration. So, who is to blame for the oil spill? Exxon Valdez skipper Joseph Hazelwood was the ships captain when the oil spill occurred. But, he blames third mate Greg Cousins, who was on the bridge, failed to turn the tanker away from Bligh Reef despite orders to do so.
Indications show that Hazelwood was intoxicated the night of the spill. Based on evidence, the skipper had three vodka drinks earlier. He was charged with piloting the tanker while drunk. He was sentenced to 1, 000 hours of community service, was fined $5, 000, and was fired.
Has Exxon done anything to prevent another oil spill? The answer is… Yes, Exxon has done something to prevent another oil spill. In the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez accident, Exxon redoubled its long-time commitment to safeguard the environment, employees, and operating communities worldwide. To improve the chances of not having another spill happen, Exxon has modifies its tanker routes. Second, they have instituted drug and alcohol testing programs for safety sensitive positions. Next, they have restricted safety-sensitive positions to employees with no history of substance abuse.
... seabirds. The vessel spilled 10.8 million U.S. gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the sea, and the oil eventually covered 11,000 ... the Navy, Army, and Air Force to clean up the spill. Exxon spent about $2.1 billion for the clean up. Despite ... a hole in the tanker causing it to leak oil. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: On March 24, 1989 at 4 minutes past midnight ...
Fourth, they have implemented more extensive periodic assessment of Exxon vessels and facilities. Strengthening training programs for vessel captains and pilots was the fifth thing they have done. Last, they have applied new technology to improve vessel navigation and insure the integrity of oil containment systems. As a result of these and other improvements, the number and volume of oil spills from marine vessels worldwide have been significantly reduced. Exxon has also improved their response capability. Exxon is a founding member of every major oil spill response throughout the entire world.
In addition, they have created the worlds most effective, environmentally safe, award winning oil spill dispersant, Cor exit 9500. There are also over 1, 000 Exxon employees involved in oil spill response teams worldwide. Exxon holds frequent and extensive oil spill drills at various Exxon locations around the world. Last, they have developed and applied new spill detecting technology. After all this, what is spill location like after ten years? After ten years, there is still some oil. Exxon spent more than $2.
1 billion in cleanup costs in the first two years after the disaster. Surprisingly, only about fourteen percent of the oil was recovered by cleanup crews. Cleaning and natural degradation removed much of the oil from the beaches, but visually identifiable surface and subsurface oil persists at many locations. Of the approximate 1, 300 miles of shorelines, 200 miles of it was considered heavy or medium oiling. The rest of the shorelines were considered light or very light oiling. So what happened to the 10.
8 million gallons of oil released into the environment? Based on surveys, most of the oil either evaporated, dispersed into the water column, or degraded naturally. Cleanup crews just got fourteen percent of it while thirteen percent of it sunk to the sea floor. About two percent remains on the beaches. March 24, 1989 is a date no one will forget. As the worst oil spill ever to hit America, many sea creatures lost their life and humans lost their source of work and food. A lesson can be learned from the tragedy of the Exxon Valdez.
... and malfunction of the liver. A very small percent of birds exposed to oil spills survives unless there is an intervention by a ... pollution. Mostly the key pathway of oil spills is through the marine oil spills. In this pathway, oil is released into the aquatic environment. The ... dependant on fur for isolation and float ability. The famous Exxon Valdez disaster is blamed to be the main cause of ...
It is too bad it was learned with the expense of thousands of sea creatures.