The short story dates back as early as the 14th Century. It offers what a novel or the equivalent would offer but it has a swiftness and completeness about it. According to Ruby Redinger, the short story is most powerful through graphic narration (752).
The short story has captured a diverse group of things from the supernatural to an everyday occurrence. Nearly any situation can be worked into a short story if the right writer is managing the idea. The first masters of the short story in the eyes of Redinger were Boccaccio, Decameron, and Chaucer, Canterbury Tales (752).
These stories were both written during the 14th Century. During the Renaissance period the short story lost its edge and writers attempts to do what Boccaccio and Chaucer had done failed. In the 19th Century America was the first to declare the short story as a literary form. During this time the authors Edgar Allan Poe, Washington Irving, and Nathaniel Hawthorn contributed to the survival of the short story. During this timeframe realism, romanticism, and impressionism were the more common literary movements. The short story can also use many other forms and types of criticism to describe it. A few different forms are surrealism, Dadaism, Imagism, Romanticism, and many others. The satire is both a type of literature and a literary manner.
It has an early history in poetry as a genre. C. Hugh Holman states that it originated in the 2nd Century B.C. by Roman satirist Lucilius and later practiced by Horace, Persius, Juvenal, and Quintilian (294).
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A satire is more frequently a literary manner in which the imperfections of a person, entire mankind, or an institution are ridiculed with the intention of correcting them. Satire is also applied to magic songs and ritualistic incentives in Greek, Old Irish, and Arabic literatures, where the ritual curse was believed to have powerful effects. The satire is often confused with the satyr play of Greek drama and coarse comic manner.
This has influenced and confused the ideas about a satire in English literature. Although the satire is often comic, its primary object is not to provoke general laughter but to provoke laughter for corrective purposes. The satire always has a target, which is held up to mock upon the satirists unveiling. The satirists viewpoint is nearly that of the cold-eyed realist, that penetrates shame and pretense for a didactic reason. The simplest direct form of satire is criticism, an up-front attack of the subject causing a sudden, harsh exposure of the truth. Another form is exaggeration, in which only the negative aspects are emphasized.
An indirect satire is usually a plot in which the characters portray themselves as ridiculous by their actions or speech. The indirect forms include irony, burlesque, travesty, and parody. The great modern age of the satire was the neoclassic period. As Holman states, the satiric spirit was everywhere and a return was made to formal verse satire (294).
Later satirists include Mark Twain, Ambrose Bierce, Sinclair Lewis, E.E. Cummings, and many others.
Realism is a literary movement in Europe and the United States in the last half of the 19th Century and the early years of the 20th. Its origins trace back to France, around the 1830s. As Holman states, the realists values the material universe, the events that occur in it, and the observable causes of those events, and feels profound obligation to report them accurately, fully, and above all, objectively (294).
Honore de Balzac was the first great realist writer, and was soon followed by Gustave Flaubert. The detailed description of life that was not sugar-coated was the masterpiece of the movement in France. There were realistic elements in the works of Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray, although the formal realistic movement did not come until around the 1880s.
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This was the time of George Moore and George Gissing who were followed at the turn of the century by Arnold Bennett and John Galsworthy. The greatest English realist and a very self-conscious one was the earlier George Eliot, who felt it a great obligation to report men and the things as they are reflected in the mirror of my mind (Holman 294).
In the United States, realism was a self-conscious movement that was borrowed from the French and the Russians. It was carefully expressed by William Dean Howells and Henry James. Holman claims that In James case, the epistemological problem intruded to such an extent that that he finally became more interested in the process of perception of the actual than in its description, thus producing the psychological novel. James The Ambassadors is probably the American realistic masterpiece (294).
Naturalism is often categorized and is similar to realism but should be clearly differentiated. Naturalism also originated in France about the same time Realism did. Naturalism only had a very little affect in England, writers like Moore and Gissing were in this classification but it did not cause them to loose their realist orientation. Unlike realism, naturalism was used more frequently in German novels and drama. In the United States, naturalism was practiced by Stephen Crane. A distinct difference that Holman pointed out about realist is that the possibility of piling up accurate detail because it is there, tends to create dryness about the reading.
This tendency that realist often employed is what naturalist rebelled against. On the other hand naturalists are often accused of oversimplifying and using non-representative characters (295).
The realist used the scientific value of the material without putting it in a fully deterministic pattern while the naturalist was obsessed with evolutionary biology, depth psychology, and sought to understand the forces that control men and their actions. Romanticism took place in most countries of the Western world in the late 18th and 19th Centuries. The exact meaning is a matter of debate. According to Holman, in 1948, English writer F.L.
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Lucas found 11,396 different definitions for Romanticism (680).
There is a broad agreement that most Romanticisms are reactions against forms and rules, against classicism and neoclassicism, against rationalism and other fixed genres. They are new modes of imagination and vision, which value freedom of form, spontaneity, self-expression, and subjectivity. Where the neoclassic writer had seen all art forms as mirrors held up to nature and had espoused a literature of consciously observed rules, its object being the rational portrayal of human beings in their public or social roles, the Romanticist saw all art as an illuminating flame fed from the inner self, a source of truth superior to logic and reason (Holman 680).
The imagination for a Romanticist was a way that the writer found a universal truth and then a source of knowledge within himself. The Romantic imagination found expression in works that created their own forms, that mixed different types, and that valued expression more than completeness and symmetry.
The lack of consideration for rules and form of the great Romantic writers held the seeds of destruction for their followers, who too frequently practiced their ext ….