Essay Part Foundations
Buddhism originated in India and has spread to Indonesia, Japan and China. Indian architecture is heavily reliant on religions of areas, it is easy to assume a religion simply by understanding the architecture. Simpler means of understanding religion, separated from every day life to establish a new faith.
Budha sitting under the bohdi tree, born an Indian prince and gave up his wife and child to become a hermit separated from life, he received nirvana by meditation under the bohdi tree. sacred ideas embedded in natural form.
The Buddhist Stupa established by disciples creating places to commemorate passing of Budhist, Stupa religious markers of the budha’s valued locations. The stupa’s formed a traditional practice of placing stones and earth over the graves of distinguished people evolved into the construction of a hemispherical form that incorporated the cosmological associations of a circle in plan, the world mountain and dome of the heavens and the vertical world axis. Circumambulating is very important, the rituals involved walking around the stupa chanting verses from scripture with a precession following whilst walking around in a clock wise direction, it this ritual of circumambulation remains central to budhist temple design.
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The torn and walls are created high, and the torana is arranged so then when approaching the Stupa you can not see directly into the stupa until once completely through the Torana. the walls are made very high s once within the walls you are separated from the earthly features found surrounding the stupa (hermit) you become separated from life, a different mental state with a quite mood and will understand the surrounding scupltures.
Torana – elaborate stone carved entrance gate to the stupa enclosure (verdika): two vertical pillars supporting 3 horizontal beams ends modelled as volutes representing the sacred scrolls
Vedika – stone fence enclosing the stupa.
harmika – square, fence like enclosure located at the top of a stupa.
chatra – three tiered umbrella form, a stylised stone version of the Bohdi tree, it’s supporting stalk symbolising the vertical axis of the world passing through the stupa centre, symbol of the heavenly dome.
The circle nature and form of the stupa is used to represent the cyclical nature of life.
The great stupa shrine Borobudur, religion spread from india to indonesia. created the synthesis of native elements and religious architecture found extraordinary expression within the stupa shrine of borobudur. This shrine is located within a plain surrounded by mountains, but it is built upon a steady incline. tradition of animism (natural forms had god like status) in this example the mountain resembles god. as opposed to the hemispherical shape of the stupa shrine in Sanchi, this shrine displays a tiered pyramid approach covered in mini stupas with a larger stupa at the top which resembles the centre point of the universe, the tiered approach helps create an artificial mountain.
Symmetrical and is orientated to the cardinal directions and is square in geometric shape. It also has heavy reliance on circumambulation, you approach the first tier and you walk the entire way around the stupa then you climb another tier. Encounter three rising terraces on each level contains 72 miniature stupas with budha sculptures found within each one. Before you arrive at the great stupa shrine you come across galleries with images and statues depicting the story behind the budha. It is a place of Budha pilgrimage.
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lower level is Kamadhatu which is our world we live in, this is then followed by Rupadhatu world of forms then arupadhatu the world of formlessness. The process of circumambulation is representative of meditation as you climb this great stupa you are casting of any earthy sins or thoughts. Once you reach the top your are clean of these thoughts and you reach a state of nirvana through this form of meditation through the process of paying reverence to budha. The circumambluation and architecture is all apart of ritual of walking, and you visit this stupa to reflect on the world. The Stupa;s reflect the surroundings and within this period there was great respect payed to the earth through buildings. The mini stupas have holes in order to shine light on the budha found inside.
Connection between body and the heavens.