Gastritis Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa and is the most common pathologic condition of the stomach. It may be acute or chronic, based on histologic criteria. Gastritis may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors. The exogenous factors that causes Gastritis are bacterial infections, especially staphylococcal toxins, drugs; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (including aspirin), sulfonamides, steroids, alcohol, ingestion of corrosive alkalies or acids, irritating foods, and radiation. The endogenous factors are certain infectious diseases: typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, allergies, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes, severe disorders such as respiratory or renal failure, sepsis, and major trauma. The symptoms of this disease depend on the cause of the gastritis and its severity.
Some gastritis is asymptomatic and requires no treatment. In other cases, anorexia is a common symptom. Some persons have only mild gastric discomfort or pain; belching and defecation often relieve the symptoms. Other persons have abdominal pain and severe nausea and vomiting, leading to severe dehydration that can have serious consequences in infants and in elderly persons.
Bleeding may occur in the form of haematemesis or me lena (blood in the stools).
There may be a severe drop in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. In gastritis caused by corrosive acid or alkalies, there will be bloody vomits and stools, and hock may occur. Death may result secondary to blood loss or perforation of a viscus. Those who recover will develop an obstruction. An endoscopy may confirm the diagnosis.
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The treatment for this disease also depends on the severity of the disease. Mild gastritis can be treated with an antacid and rest. Severe gastritis, intravenous replacement of fluid and electrolytes, and anti emetics such as prochlorperazin (Comp azine) or trimethobenzamide (Tig an) should be given. For erosive gastritis, antacids and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists should be supplied to inhibit gastric acid formation. Sucralfate (Cara fate) is used to coat the mucosa and prevent back-diffusion of acid and pepsin. Antibiotics is given to those who has Gastritis that is caused by bacterial agents.
For atrophic gastritis, Anticholinergic’s (for example, Pro-Ban thine) and Vitamin B 12 should be given.