AUTHENTICITY AND INTEGRITY IN RELATION TO THE WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION
Integrity and/ or authenticity and conditions necessary for properties submitted for nomination as World heritage to be deemed of outstanding universal value.
The conditions of Authenticity and integrity are set out in the operational guidelines for implementations of the World Heritage Convention (Revised 2006).
The condition of Authenticity is also set out in the NARA document on Authenticity 1994.
The operational guidelines for implementation of the World Heritage Convention require that statements of integrity and/or authenticity be included in the nomination with a demonstration how the property satisfies the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity.
Authenticity may be defined as the search for the truth – it is the quality of being authentic, established authority for truth and corrections genuine and truthful; conforming to the fact and worthy of belief.
In a historical sense it is the measure of how close an action or custom is to what would actually have been used or done in the time period being depicted.
Under the world Heritage Convention, authenticity is states as the verification of truthfulness of historicity or proven origin of particular heritage, object or structure.
The operational guidelines indicate that properties nominated under criteria (i) to (vi) must meet the conditions f authenticity.
The Brave New World treated death much as they did birth, this was in contradiction to the way the savage felt death should be Death in the Brave New World is not important, it is simply something that happens to your body when it has got worn out. In chapter 14 the nurse thought that the savage was Undoing all their wholesome death-conditioning with this disgusting outcry as though death were ...
The guidelines state that the ability to understand the value attributed to the heritage depends on the degree to which information sources about this value may be understood as credible or truthful.
Knowledge and understanding of these sources of information, in relation to original and subsequent characteristic of the cultural heritage, and their meaning, are the required bases for assessing all aspects of authenticity.
This may differ from culture to culture, and even within the same culture.
Properties may be understood to meet the conditions of authenticity if their cultural values are truthfully and clearly expressed through a variety of tribute which include: form and design, materials and substance, use and function, traditions, techniques and management systems, location and setting, language, spirit and feeling.
In the nomination process, a state party needs to identify all applicable significant attributes of authenticity. The statement of authenticity then assesses the degree to which authenticity is present in each significant attributes.
It can be stated that there is no restricted criteria or definition of authenticity and no standardized procedures for identifying authenticity.
It is however possible to identify aspects that define the authenticity of a property for nomination to the World Heritage list, based on its outstanding universal value.
Integrity may be defines as the quality of having a sense of honesty and truthfulness. It signifies consistency of actions, values, principles and outcome.
Under the operational guidelines, integrity is stated as a measure of the wholeness and intactness of the natural and/or cultural heritage and its attributes.
The operational guidelines of the World Heritage Convention require that all properties nominated for inscription on the World heritage list must satisfy the conditions of integrity.
All the three philosophers, whose work I am going to scrutinize on, have very specific, yet in most cases common views on property. First of all, let me define what the term property means. Property, as I see it, is an object of legal rights that is possessed by an individual or a group of individuals who are directly responsible for this it. In his work Of Justice, David Hume puts great emphasis ...
The guidelines require that in examining the conditions of integrity, assessment be made of the extent to which the property:
Includes all elements necessary to express its outstanding Universal value.
Is of adequate size to ensure complete representation of the properties significance.
Suffers from adverse effects of development and/or neglect.
The physical fabric of the property and/or its significant features should be in good conditions, and impact of deterioration processes controlled.
Refer to requirements of integrity under the operational guidelines
PRACTICIAL APPLICATIONS OF AUTHENTICITY AND INTEGRITY
To understand the application of authenticity and integrity, we shall examine their application in property that are listed in the World Heritage list in Kenya.
LAMU OLD TOWN
Lamu Old Town was inscribed in the world Heritage list in 2001 under the criteria (ii), (iv) and (vi).
The significance consideration under those criteria were: –
– Architecture and urban structure that demonstrated cultural influences.
– Unique and rare historical living heritage.
The criteria for authenticity and integrity indicated the following aspects: –
– Safeguarding the towns identify by preserving its Swahili culture and its buildings, some dating to the 15th century presently the building fabric is relatively well maintained and the social – cultural practices still in place.
– The inhabitants of Lamu have managed to maintain age – old tradition.
– Conservation of Lamu old town which has always been done using materials and methods traditional to Lamu culture.
SACRED MIJI-KENDA KAYA FOREST
The Miji – kenda Kaya forests were inscribed in 2008 under criteria (iii) (v) and iv).
EMINENT DOMAIN: Taking Property for Public Use Blackstone, in his Commentaries, recognizes three absolute rights possessed by all individuals in a free society: (1) the right of personal security; (2) the right of personal liberty; and (3) the right of private property. The right of the sovereign to acquire private property for public use is known as the right of Eminent Domain. It is the right of ...
Authenticity was also expressed in the location and setting of the Kayas.
The integrity of the Kayas was stated in their continued existence despite intense land use pressure, the existence and effectiveness of a traditional system of beliefs and norms which serve to prevent the disappearance of these sites.
The legal protection of the Kayas was also indicated as integral.