Q.1.) HOW DO NATURAL DISASTERS AFFECT TOURISM DEMAND AND SUPPLY?
There are many issues which affect tourism internationally; this essay aims to discuss the impact of natural disasters can have on tourism demand and supply. Tourism is an important part of countries’ economy and in less economically developed countries but actions of natural disasters affects the economy. The discussion essay has two parts to answer which is how natural disasters affect tourism demand and supply.
Tourism is portable for recreational, leisure or corporate purposes. The World Tourism Organization describes tourists as people “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one successive time for leisure, corporate and other purposes”.
A natural disaster is the result of earth’s natural dangers, for example downpour, tornado, storm, volcanic eruption, earthquake, heat wave, or landslide. They can lead to financial, ecological or human losses. (Wikipedia.org, 2001) It can disturb tourism for numerous reasons as it abolishes the natural environment and the things it relies on, makes the tourist area unsafe and damages many seaside resorts, hotels and infrastructure.
The essay will discuss the first part of the essay which is how natural disasters affect tourism demand
Tourism Demand can be assumed of as a scope of study or measurement. It is the study of why people travel and the affiliation between their motivation to travel and their aptitude to travel. Demand is measured through the quantity of populaces who travel, or wish to travel, to use tourist facilities. (PAGE & CONNELL, 2009)
Legal system which protects personal safety 2. The Middle Ages(5th- 14th) and the Renaissance Era(14th-16th) Mayans establish trade and travel routes in parts of Central and North America. European travel on failed religious crusades to retake the Holy Lands from Muslim control introduce these military forces to new places and cultures. Macro Polo’s travels throughout the Far East begin to ...
The first element of tourism demand is Price during natural disasters there is considerable damage to resorts and infrastructure and this incurs additional cost to the resort for repairing and maintaining the infrastructure which all these factors increases the cost of production to the resort so to cover the costs the resort has no choice but to increase the price of its products this however decreases the level of tourism demand as tourist are very price sensitive and they tend to look for other alternatives closer to home or countries closer to their region. But huge multinational resort operators who cannot afford to lose massive tourism numbers from their resorts and have the capacity or resources to decrease price of their resort products even though there was a natural disaster. So price affects tourism demand in two ways because of natural disaster.
The second element of tourism demand that is affected by natural disasters is health and safety issues many inbound tourists will refrain from traveling to the country because of poor health and hygienic issues of the country because of after every natural disaster there is an outbreak of diseases so the level of tourist inflow in the country will decline as the tourist will take extra precautionary measures which will result in tourist looking for other tourism destination alternatives. Also safety can contribute to the decline in tourism demand due to natural disaster as after every natural disaster there is a problem of security in the country such as stealing from shops, random robbery of affected people which tourists will be really concerned about. This tourism demand element when affected by natural disasters will contribute to slumps in tourism demand.
The third element of tourism demand that is affected by natural disasters is substitution is defined as goods which as a result of changed conditions may replace each other in use or consumption. For example if there is two hypothetical countries, country x and y so when country x tourism industry is badly affected by a natural disaster and its inputs which include the natural environment and tourism products become costly to maintain and reconstruct which will push the price of its tourism product to rise which will lead to less tourism consumption of its product so in this situation the tourist will choose country y because its tourism product is similar and is by far cheaper than country x because a price cautious tourist will always go for service which is same and less priced from the original choice of country. So for every country which is affected by natural disasters the results of the substitution effect will decrease its tourism demand and vice versa.
To conclude our report from the understandable of Tsunami happens in Malaysia, there is lot of memorable and sadness when the boxing day. Seven years after Tsunami, while the human dimensions of the tragedy will take much longer to heal the country has made major steps towards recovering from the worst economic effects of the disaster. Apart from unrecoverable losses in human lives, the tsunami ...
Furthermore the fourth element of tourism demand is personal income this is the availability of personal income is observed as a vital economic factor in demand. As income increases, so does tourism demand. However, as tourism is a flexible item (non-essential or indulgence), demand is possible to reduction in periods of natural disasters. Demand is also influenced by income circulation. For example when natural disasters occur in a country the economy is affected which causes a slump in economic activity this causes less money flow in the country and affects domestic tourism demand as domestic visitors have less money to spend and this causes less tourism demand for its product.
Also to add to demand these elements comes under deferred demand where tourists are prevented from travelling by supply side problems for example lack of accommodation, transport difficulties, weather. Further to elaborate on this all this factors pay a heavy price to tourism demand as this factors cause drastic downfall of tourist activity in the country which results in loss of employment, poor standard of living in the country, increase in poverty, and increase in criminal activity as lack of employment will cause the general population to resort to criminal activity. This all will affect the economy of countries that are solely depended on tourism for their lively hood and economic development.
Abstract The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, triggered by a massive earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, is the deadliest natural disaster ever of this kind. Aside from a massive number of casualties, this tsunami caused heavy economic damage and severe destruction to the natural environment of stricken countries. Given the significant destruction and suffering, it resulted in massive ...
The second part of tourism which the natural disaster has an effect on is tourism supply compromises of the suppliers of all the goods and services that go into delivery of tourism products to consumers. It involves the delivery of goods and services mandatory to encounter tourism demand and which are articulated in tourism ingestion (PAGE & CONNELL, 2009)
The first element of tourism supply which is affected by natural disasters is hospitality and accommodation services which are the base which from which visitors can engage in the process of staying at a destination. So when a natural disaster strikes it cause great damage to the hospitality infrastructure in hotels and resorts this causes a decline in the number of hotel and resort rooms available in the host country which the visitor was planning to visit so because of this the number of tourism rooms or services supplied declines so this is how natural disasters affect the first element of tourism supply.
Furthermore the second element of tourism supply which is affected by natural disasters is transportation which I will explain is all transportation which included in tourism such as tourist bus, local ferries, metro and trams, road trains and canals and rivers. So whenever a natural disaster occurs it causes great damage to the transportation links for example roads, canals and bridges which causes disruption to the normal routes of transportation in tourism also international airline flights are affected leaving passengers stranded in all this activities this decreases the level of tourism supply.
In addition the third element of tourism supply is attractions and activities this includes all the manmade and nature based tourism elements that comes under attractions and activities such as hiking, camping, swimming, river cruises, mountain claiming, and activities which include theme parks, national parks, water worlds etc. natural disasters causes a lot of damage to these natural and manmade activities such as landslides, which destroys the natural activities and sites and this causes decline in the tourism supply.
Step 1: Survival Essentials Each part of the world faces unique challenges in preparing for natural disasters. These differences will impact how you prepare. Contact your local Red Cross chapter and ask for information about the types of disasters that may impact your location. But no matter where you live or what type of disaster you may encounter, every home should have a supply of six disaster ...
To add to the supply element the fourth factor is the local community this includes all the local cultures and traditions which is displayed to the tourist in the host country they are unpaid supply sectors which are servicing the tourism sector (PAGE & CONNELL, 2009).
These local communities attract a majority of the tourist population as they display traditional dances, eating styles and many traditional handicrafts which are displayed to the tourist but when natural disasters strike mainly floods and tsunamis this level of supply declines to real low.
In conclusion the changeability of natural tragedies and the service sector diligence can have awful effects when happening concurrently. In universal natural tragedies have the consequence of initially reducing tourism but destinations exaggerated can then change and allow the business to adapt to comprise the disaster. As nations depend on so much on tourism there is a need to recuperate their profession and deal with natural disasters in order to stay alive. This is particularly true in the case of LEDCs but unfortunately it is often these nations which find it most hard due to the massive addiction on the industry for their economy and living. This essay discussed how natural disasters affect tourism demand and supply using different elements of tourism.
* PAGE, S. J. & CONNELL, J., 2009. TOURSM A MODERN SYNTHESIS. 3rd ed. BATH: Pat Bond.
* Wikipedia.org, 2001. Wikipedia- The Free Encyclopedia. [Online]
Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/natural Disaster
[Accessed 19 april 2012].