By the time of the Civil War, the technologies upon which the First industrial revolution was based were established in the United States. In the years following the war, the nation’s industrial energies were focused on completing the railroad and telegraph networks of the North, rebuilding those of the South, and expanding those of the West. Once the devastating depression of the 1870’s depleted, the stage was set for the Second Industrial Revolution. New inventions came about to ease the production of goods that were being supplied. The creation of factories emerged by retailers who were struggling to meet the requirements of the masses surrounding them. The formation of power driven machinery was initiated in order to compete with others.
These machines began to replace skilled craftspeople. Since this involved less people, labor costs were reduced, as well as the prices for the goods that were produced. Depending on the country’s needs, the machinery produced products by the thousands or even millions. The impact of these new inventions caused a dramatic drop of the life expectancy of the average citizen to an upsetting fifteen years of age. Because most families were rather poor, everyone had to work. Since there were no child labor laws, children were sent to work in coal mines, and silk mills.
... up overall economic growth.Bibliography:Ashton, T.S.The Industrial Revolution. London: Oxford University Press, 1948. Deane, Phyllis ... power-driven equipment, and large-scale enterprise, the Industrial Revolution in England greatly increased output in certain radically ... of inventions and innovations that allowed and propelled Britains industrial revolution. Without the invention of the steam engine, ...
Women also had to work, mostly in textiles factories or as seamstresses. Women and children were expected to work up to sixteen hours a day, doing labor that could cause serious injury, such as carrying extremely heavy loads. They were paid ridiculously low wages for their work. Women were paid around five shillings per week, and children were paid about one. Prior to the industrialization, women were never considered as an economic working force, but instead to take care of the household. During the industrialization, women had a big impact on the future but it was not easy for them, since it was often difficult to achieve their goals for equality in the male dominated society.
Upon entering World War I, women hoped for more rights. They also had hopes of becoming equal to the white male. Without women, the Industrial Revolution would have never come about. Women make up roughly fifty percent of the world’s population; therefore a revolution without women would have been impossible since they were an important work force, such as in cotton factories or other textile manufacturing markets. For the first time as a work force, and a strong political voice, without women the industrial revolution would have failed.
In the late 19’th century, many new immigrants came to America with hopes to escape religious and political persecution, to find better employment opportunities, for more freedoms, and a chance to start over again. The immigrant work force grew fast as the demand for factory labor grew. These immigrants were important to industrialization in the United States. They were willing to work in unsanitary work conditions for little pay. Because of this, American industries were able to hire more of these types of workers.
Although they were unskilled, the type of jobs they were required to do were jobs that didn’t demand much knowledge. Workers during the Industrial Revolution had hoped for benefits, such as health, cleaner working conditions, better pay, and less working hours. Industrial workers often felt overworked because of the long, stressful hours placed upon them by their employers. Labor unions began to emerge as a result of the long hours and awful working conditions. These workers were locked up all day in factories that were eight stories high. They were given absolutely no relaxation until the heavy engine stopped.
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After leaving work, they would go home to get refreshed for the next day. This left these industrial workers with no time for association with their families. Before the time of industrialization, the United States was an agrarian society. Most of the people were Protestant, English-speaking, Anglo-Saxons from Northern and Western Europe. Many of them came to the United States because of political persecution, overpopulation, overused land, and shortage of jobs due to industrialization in Europe. When it came to the newly freed slaves, they ” re hopes were to be paid for the work that they had been doing and to be able to have more freedoms.
During industrialization, the freed slaves dreamed of progress and self improvement. Some blacks had started their own businesses, bought land, and went into other professions. Another improvement was the fact that a lot of new schools were being made for blacks. Black people began to achieve more rights and therefore wanted to become more involved since they were being rewarded for it. People like Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and J.
Pierpont Morgan were among the big business leaders in the U. S. during the time period of the Industrial Revolution. These business men created large organizations predominantly through two approaches. The first approach involves the combining of firms into a single corporation, and the second being, taking over of all the different businesses on which that specific company relied on. These business men, and others like them, were in charge of major companies.
Their companies included the technology and mass production which made them very wealthy citizens as well as the most popular business men of this time period. The Industrial Revolution was a time period in which virtually every aspect of life improved. A large improvement would prove to be caused by new ideas that fueled the reformation of the economy. These expectations were centered on the thought that the economy should change from that of an agrarian society to one of industry.
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These expectations not only helped to lead to the explosion of mass industry, but they also led to the improvement of working conditions. Along with enhanced working conditions, working hours were also improved. This, in turn, led to a higher standard of living. Wages were increased, health benefits became available, and eventually, pension became obtainable to those who retired.
Transportation had been realized in terms of moving around the military quicker, the use of planes were also realized to a military level. The whole industrial era was all it was cracked up to be because people could produce products more efficiently, which boosted the economy. The assembly line made this all possible. In addition, women gained more rights and were allowed to enter the work force. With the freeing of the slaves, it allowed them to work. These slaves lived up to all expectation because they made things possible with more man power.
They also got paid a good amount for their work. The job opportunities and price decrease improved the lives of the people. It gave them a chance to be a part of the society and be able to purchase products at prices that were affordable. To the extent where expectations had failed to become reality, involved the blacks becoming as equal as the white people, or the A glo-Americans. The blacks hoped to be equal to those of white decent, but that, unfortunately, did not happen. Despite the fact that this hope failed, significant improvements were made from where they started at.
Another aspect that failed was that there were supposed to be guidelines about how long people are allowed to work and how much they can make. Workers were also required to be under certain regulations where they would receive breaks. As well, they were supposed to be given clean, sanitary factories to work in. However, this wasn’t always the case.
There were improvements, nevertheless, people still got sick because of the unsanitary conditions of the factory. We would not be where we are today without the inventions and changes from the industrialization that took place to form a more ideal society. Our lives would not be enhanced with the technology that helps us to learn and grow. Without the growth of industrialization and the inventions it brought about, people would still be working on farms. It is easy to recognize the negative aspects of such a dramatic event. However, if the revolution is viewed as a whole, it is noticeable that the positive aspects completely outweigh the negative aspects.
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In the beginning, people struggled and suffered, but normally people do sacrifice at first with change and progress. As time went on, people gained more benefits, and their lives became better. Work became much less tedious, and most people found themselves with more leisure time. These are just some of the many aspects of the revolution that benefited the people as a nation. Sacrifices were made, which in turn, created happiness, life opportunities, and an over all, betterment of life.