Journal article Using an academic search engine (Staffordshire university website), a link was found to web which contained many psychology journals on the topic of sleep and dreaming. Many journal articles were found, though the selected journal was ‘Slow wave & REM sleep mentation’ (Cicogna, Natale, Occhionero, Bosinelli 2000), previously used as assessment for the Internet journal assignment. Identifying hypothesis (10) The title is clear and straight to the point, highlighting the essential elements of the study. As the abstract shows, the aim of the journal is to compare the characteristics of rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS).
This would be to accept the hypothesis that dreaming is a continuous act, with allowing the different distributions and levels of REM and SWS to occur at different times during the sleep process. It has been acknowledged that the sleep process is divided into certain stages of REM and non rapid eye movement (NREM), being a crucial difference and the main point for NREM, i.
e. , SWS not being a part of the dreaming process. There has been much previous research about whether REM sleep can be connected to dreaming, outlaying different theories both for and against. An example of a study is to test participants on recall of their dreams through extreme controlled situations. It was found that 60-70% of SWS stage (3 rd & 4 th stage of NREM) could be recalled.
According to Kozier et Al. (2002), sleep is the state of being conscious wherein there is a decrease of perception, and reaction to the environment of an individual (p. 953). Sleep exerts physiologic effects on both the nervous systems and other body structures and also it restores normal levels of activity and balance among parts of the nervous systems (p. 956). There are two types of sleep, NREM ...
Though this has not systematically been researched since 1968, it was argued how SWS could be bracketed as a continuous dreaming act when the recall results were so high, compared with the minimalist recall of REM stages. It has been suggested, therefore, that there are multiple generators dealing with these different stages, with the theory that it must be a discontinuous act, due the change of generators. However to put a different spin on the issue, most researchers believe there are some realities between REM and NREM s the term ‘dream’ or ‘dreaming’ does not have a uniform definition. The aim of the experiment is to try and find evidence to establish any connection between REM and SWS and infer a continuous dreaming process. This will be done by studying the differential elements between mental experiences collected in REM and NREM, leading to the suggestion that they are all quantitative. If this is proved then the idea of multiple generators may be eliminated, and replace by a single generator, considering dreaming continuously as fantasies & daydreams during sleep and those during wakening hours) Provide mini-abstract (15) Criticisms-method / ethics /analyse (10) Does not use previous literature to explain reasons in introduction, simply quotes names and dates.
How much paid? If condition failed, scheduled more nights, training participants perhaps? Length of report on dram structure contradicts how the participants were making their reports due to thematic units. Confusing for reader. 5-point scale for emotion and vividness are not broken down. Were the participants debriefed exactly, obvious what doing, told nature? How did judges resolve their discrepancies? Written in first person and not third. How participants were chosen? Left unclear whether hypothesis was accepted or rejected. Confounding variables? Not very large sample size.
How far apart nights were (not consecutive).
Too picky with literature? Introduction is not very directional, with previous literature and mike don’t know knee know with withtwtih with weight Evaluate and compare with others (20) Scoring is very detailed with many examples. Results displayed clearly with plenty of explanation. How to overcome jargon (10) Have a psychology dictionary/ ordinary dictionary will not contain many psychological terms, & thesaurus to identify difficult words. Make note of difficult phrases and words to become familiar with. Re-read the article many times.
What is a dream? Dreams are a symbol and link to the inner core of the human subconscious. Dreams as scientist say are stories our brains create while we are sleeping at night. Every dream is not the same, and their qualities depend, at least in part, on the stage of sleep in which they occur. There are different stages of sleep, REM sleep is the one dreams most appear in. REM stands for rapid eye ...
Get confused half way through; make sure finish to get gist and direction Assess skill and ability to read article (5) Using Internet to search for other relevant material. Also library use to read around the topic. Begin to form own thesis on topic as well as other researchers. Need to be familiar with the topic, willing to accept many different theories. How to gain these skills.
(5) Courses in Internet.