Learning Behavior Psychologists have preformed many studies and proposed many theories regarding learning. Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that is due to past experience. John B. Watson was an early psychologist that didn’t agree with many other psychologist’s ideas about learning only relating to consciousness and thought processes. As the founder of behaviorism, Watson studied learning in a behavioral perspective, an approach that emphasizes the relationship between outwardly observable behaviors and environmental events, rather than mental processes. classical conditioning is a process of learning associations between stimuli used by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist.
In classical conditioning, a stimulus causes an existing behavior to occur. Pavlov used classical conditioning to study dog salivation. A ringing bell was used as a neutral stimulus. During the conditioning the bell is repeatedly sounded immediately before the food is placed in front of the dog producing the natural reflex of salivation, which is an unconditioned response (unlearned reflexive response).
The result of the repeated ringing of the bell, placement of the food, and salivation of the mouth was a conditioned reflex.
The ringing bell then stimulated the conditioned response of salivation. B. F. Skinner, also a behaviorist, studied the effects of operant conditioning on behavior. Operant conditioning is the basic learning process that involves changing the probability of a response being repeated by manipulating the consequences of the response. Skinner believed that classical conditioning was limited to behaviors that are reflexively elicited.
... what has been a 'conditioned response'. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments ... anxiety. This process is called systematic desensitization (Fredholm, 1999). Conditioning forms the basis of much of learned human behavior. Nowadays, ... dogs began to salivate when the sound of the bell was presented. They learned to associate the sound of ...
An operant describes behaviors that are ‘operate upon the environment to generate consequences.’ Reinforcement follows an operant and increases the likelihood of the operant being repeated. There are two forms of reinforcement: positive and negative reinforcement. When an event occurs producing a positive effect, it is considered positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of a stimulus increasing the likelihood of a positive effect. An example of this would be to take two aspirins to remove the pain from a headache. Punishment is a process that decreases the likelihood of a behavior to occur again.
This is not to be confused with negative reinforcement because it doesn’t increase the likelihood of an occurrence. There are drawbacks to punishment. It doesn’t teach an appropriate behavior to replace an inappropriate one. Also, intense punishment can lead to results such as passivity, fear, anxiety, or hostility. Finally, effects of punishment are sometimes temporary. An alternative to punishment is trying to change the behavior of others.
First, stop reinforcing the problem behavior by identifying the reinforcer and eliminating it. When it is not possible to eliminate the reinforcement, remove the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement. An example of this would be time-out for a child because he or she is no longer receiving attention from anyone. Another step is to use a valued reinforcer when the unwanted behavior has not occurred.
The best way to reduce a problem behavior from occurring is to reinforce an alternative behavior that is both constructive and incompatible with the problem behavior. A good example of this would be, if a child were whining, respond to her only if she uses a normal voice. The most important thing to remember is to positively reinforce the behavior that you want to occur again. The Skinner Box, also known as an operant chamber, was created to scientifically study to relationship between behavior and it’s consequences. Shaping is used with in the box to selectively reinforce a behavior that is increasingly coming close to the goal behavior.
... previous form of learning is called operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a process through which organisms learn to repeat behaviors that yield positive outcomes or ... elapse before a response will yield reinforcement; Fixed-Ratio Schedule, a schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of ...
The goal behavior can then be maintained by continuous reinforcement. The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned behavior leads to extinction. The cognitive perspective implies that the mental process is an important part of learning as well as classical and operant conditioning. Cognitive maps are mental representations of the layout of a familiar environment. An example of a cognitive map would be what a rat would have to do to get through a maze.
Albert Bandura as a psychologist identified with observational learning. Bandura believes that learning can occur through observing the actions of others. Attention, memory, and motor skills are necessary for learning to take place through observation. There are many different approaches to learning. Scientists such as Watson, Skinner, Pavlov, Tolman, and Bandura all contributed to the psychological perspectives of learning behavior.