At the end of the 11 th century many advances had occurred, scholastically, philosophically, and socially. Though these advances appear relatively minor by today fs standards, they changed the face of the medieval world. These advances, spearheaded by strong leadership, produced a vitality and growth for the coming century. Throughout all history, strong leadership played a key role in all civilizations f advancement.
The 12 th century had an abundance of energetic, innovative, and inspired leaders in many fields. gThe twelfth century left its signature on higher education, on the scholastic philosophy, on European systems of law, on architecture and sculpture, on the liturgical drama, on Latin and vernacular poetry. h  Of all the leaders of the 12 th century, the Church deserves the most recognition. The populace of Europe was affected, no matter what or how strong their belief, by the Church. g Christianity was the matrix of medieval life: even cooking instructions called for boiling an egg “during the length of time wherein you say a Miserere.” It governed birth, marriage, and death, sex, and eating, made the rules for law and medicine, gave philosophy and scholarship their subject matter. Membership in the Church was not a matter of choice; it was compulsory and without alternative, which gave it a hold not easy to dislodge.
... a reformation in the 16 th century Why did the church change hands from Catholic to Protestant ... on the Reformation of the Church of England during the sixteenth century as we take a quick ... BRINTON, ROLAND H. , The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, Beacon Press, Boston, 1985 DUNN, RICHARD S. , ... their thrown through the parliament who became increasingly stronger with the House of Commons being the ...
 The Crusades themselves were already a product of the Church. Oddly enough, they seemed less effective at spreading Christianity as they were at bringing back other philosophies. Many traditional Greek works had been translated by Muslim scholars, made their way back to Spain, and then to be translated into Latin: the spiritual and scholarly language for most of Europe. This revival of literature sparked the minds of many leaders such as Thomas of Aquinas, influencing new thought and methods of thought. He led many to a new and optimistic faith, founded in reason and fueled by faith. These new methods of thinking, reasoning, and understanding led to many new schools; both of thought and building.
Scholasticism, lead by St. Thomas Aquinas, and its critics lead by St. Bernard of Clair vaux and John of Salisbury. Whenever a line is drawn in the sand, sides grow, debate emerges, spurring new leadership, new thoughts and philosophies.
Those who sought leadership became students, and schools like the University of Paris, Bologna, and Oxford grew and flourished. During all of this, the rise of towns changed the social structure. As people became educated, they sought ways to better their station and financial situation. Some time later, as moveable type gained popularity, the majority of books, pamphlets, and fliers printed were self help books. The towns created more diverse cultural centers where art, trade, and learning could grow much faster as information was exchanged on a more regular basis. With neighbors much closer, and many townsfolk being craftspeople, it is easy to imagine debates taking place each night at local inns and taverns.
The 12 th century was one of expansion. It expanded in so many directions so rapidly due to its strong leaders and the inadvertent spoils of the Crusades. Though any of the growth and change concerned some as it happened, the Medieval Renaissance was truly a golden age that rivaled gthe Golden Age of Greece and Rome. Today, we are still influenced by the 12 th century: in art, literature, educational systems and social relationships. h 1.
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