INTRODUCTION One of the chief tasks for any manager is to manage people (Robbins, Pages 20-34).
The study of organizational behavior focuses on factors and issues involved in human behavior related to jobs, work, absenteeism, employment turnover, productivity, human performance, and management, each of which is directly related to job responsibilities of a manager. Thus study of organization behavior increases manager’s effectiveness by giving him / her specific insights into people’s behavior. The study of organization behavior is even more important now with the latest trend in globalization, and workforce diversity. In brief, Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness (Robbins, Page 35).
Organizational Behavior is an applied behavioral science, not based upon intuition, and build upon disciplines such as Psychology, Sociology, Social Psychology, Anthropology, and Political Science.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MODEL Organizational Behavior is studied at three levels. The most basic is the individual level. Here we study the factors, and variables that guide people’s behavior as an individual. The next level is group level. This level studies the factors, and variables involved in people’s behavior when they work in a team. Since a team is build with more than one individual, this level is based upon the research and result found in individual level, and adds on to it.
... Case Study in Organizational Behavior, Employee Motivation (1) Nowadays, it is ... cannot talk about employees as standard sets of individuals with burning desire to make money.At the ... organization to operate in most effective mode, people in charge of designing employment policies need to ... would come to increasing employees professional effectiveness. Today, people who apply to get hired, expect to have ...
Finally, the organization systems level overlay the knowledge gained in studying individual and group level to arrive at organizational behavior. In the organizational behavior model, various dependent variables are studied at each level. Then independent variables that determine the dependent variables are studied. At times certain contingency variables are introduced and studied to link the independent variable to dependent variables. DEPENDENT VARIABLES Dependent variables are the key factors that need to be explained or predicted. These factors are affected by some other factors, usually identified as independent variables.
The five dependent variables that have been identified in organizational behavior studies are: Productivity A higher productivity implies producing output at the lowest cost, thus maximizing profits for the organization. Absenteeism Failure to report causes difficulty in smooth operation and might cause delay in decision making or completing the work. It may lead to reduction in quality or quantity of output. Turnover A high turnover would cause increased recruiting cost, training cost, and disruption of work.
Organizational citizenship It has been seen that organizations with employees that make constructive statements about their work group and the organization, help others on their team, volunteer for extra job activities, avoid unnecessary conflicts, show care for organizational property, respect the spirit as well as the letter of rules and regulations, and gracefully tolerate the occasional work-related impositions and nuisances outperform those that don’t (Robbins Page 77-78).
... ideas 3. Organizational level diagnosis The elements in organizational level diagnosis are: - Inputs: General Environment, Industry Structure- Strategic Orientation: Strategy, Organizational Design- Output: Organization Performance, ... familiar with, using the diagnostic organizational level analysis. Your diagnosis should include an assessment of the organization's performance and an indication ...
Job satisfaction Job satisfaction is a legitimate objective of an organization. Not only is satisfaction negatively related to absenteeism and turnover, but also organizations have a responsibility to provide employees with jobs that are challenging and intrinsically rewarding. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES These variables are the major determinants of productivity, absenteeism, turnover, Organizational citizenship, and job satisfaction. They provide the building blocks for organizational behavior model.
Independent variables exist at the individual, group and organization systems level. Some of the independent variables are: Individual level variables Personal or biographical characteristics such as age, gender, and marital status; personality characteristics; an inherent emotional framework; values and attitudes; basic ability levels, perception, individual decision making, learning, and motivation Organization Systems Level Variables Organization systems level variables include design of the formal organization, work processes, and jobs; the organization’s human resource policies and practices (that is, selection processes, training programs, performance evaluation methods); and the internal culture. CONCLUSION Organizational Behavior is scientific study of human behavior working in an organization. It identifies various factors that affect human behavior and builds a model identifying their interplays. The aim of such a study is to help run organization run effectively. References Robbins, S.
Organizational Behavior (Custom Edition for University of Phoenix).
Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing.