Organizing Function of Management There are two contrasting approaches about how organizational function of management can best be accomplished. One is the traditional approach emphasizing that organizations should try to sell themselves with a positive image. That is, one that avoids most, if not all, of the harsher realities in any organization. The second contrasting viewpoint is one I have called the Realistic View. The major difference is the RV presents a more complete picture of future working life in an organization, because it includes both positive and negative information. The exact balance between positive and negative depends on each particular situation, and must be determined by research. Such research typically involves interviewing people who work for the Navy (sometimes passing out questionnaires), observing them at work, and talking to the Navy officers, who can be compared to managers in non-military organization.
If an organization tries to sell a job (e.g., Be all you can be, join the Army, or Navy — live the adventure), it runs the risk of attracting some people who will be quite disappointed to find reality does not come close to the created expectations. When ones expectations are not met, dissatisfaction is the immediate result, and turnover is a likely consequence. Thus, the main financial reason to use RV instead of the traditional approach is because some unnecessary turnover among new hires is avoided. To put it more positively, the job survival rate is increased. At first glance the logic of the RV may seem backwards because its message is that presenting a tarnished image is actually a good idea. However, one must realize that the measure of effective information dissemination is how many qualified job candidates remain with the organization.
Innovation and creativity will be the essence for k-economy to be realized in order for organization to stay competitive. The mind-set of workers in an organization as well as the nation as a whole must be changed. This will be the biggest challenge for organizations to manage since innovation and creativity will demand for knowledge-driven employees or knowledge-workers. Organization knowledge ...
Retention is really the bottom line. In order to increase job survival rates in the Navy, it is important that some candidates to join the Navy be convinced that the organization is not the right place for them. It is better for those who would be likely to quit anyway removing themselves from further consideration prior to being hired. On the military side, Human Resource management developments also emerge. The Navy (in particular, the Marine Corps) enlisted the help of the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division about 10 years ago in improving the safety of its fleet. This led researchers to expand their view of what was required for effective aviation beyond technical aspects of the task (i.e., flying the aircraft) to include nontraditional competencies such as teamwork, which can be labeled as Crew Organization Management. COM includes optimizing not only the person-machine interface and the acquisition of timely, appropriate information, but also interpersonal activities including leadership, effective team formation and maintenance, problem-solving, decision-making, and maintaining situation awareness.
COM involves communicating basic knowledge of human factors concepts that relate to aviation and providing the tools necessary to apply these concepts operationally. At the time, COM represented a new focus on crew-level (as opposed to individual-level) aspects of training and operations. The major goal of the COM was to help the Navy the tide of accidents caused by so-called human error by addressing psychological factors that influence aircrew performance. When it came to actually developing training to address COM issues, early attempts held almost exclusively that COM training should target crew members attitudes toward teamwork. First, initial COM training overemphasized the affective, personality, and attitudinal aspects of crew coordination at the expense of the behavioral aspects of the problem of crew coordination. Second, little guidance was available regarding how to train crew coordination skills. So, although these early efforts had the effect of enlightening the aviation community, they did not address the COM training problem sufficiently.
The new Service Management program of Minnesota Business School is a very interesting and exciting opportunity for those people who want to devote their career to Service Management industry. The scope of the industry is very broad and continuously growing. It is a very stable branch of global business. Besides the speciality of Service Management is very undefined and can serve the graduates a ...
In the 10 years or so that have followed, the lack of a organized standardized methodology for the Navy management caused a host of diverse COM training programs to be developed. Whereas early programs emphasized attitudes toward teamwork, as described earlier, others were based on personality or skill, and still others on a combination of these. Training has been given in lectures, discussions, videotape observations, game-playing, classroom role-play, mishap analyses, and both low- and high-fidelity simulations. Some courses have used only one technique (e.g., lecture) and others have used several. Content has shown diversity as well and has included topics such as interaction styles, stress reduction, and automation issues, in addition to the subjects of workload management, advocacy, and situation awareness that are included in many programs. Some programs are clearly based on attitude change or skill development, but others, for which training has been composed of elements copied from the programs of other organizations, have no discernible basis. In sum, the lack of agreement regarding what COM training should include and how it should be accomplished has led to confusion and, in many cases, adoption of theoretical and suboptimal programs. To address these deficiencies, the Navy adopted a more systematic approach to organizational function of human resource management.
Fortunately, there are a number of theoretical perspectives that can provide a strong foundation for COM training development. Recent theoretical advances in cognitive psychology also offer promise in guiding what to train and how to train it. Training strategy for junior first officers aimed at improving their ability to determine the appropriate time to act. The training focused on teaching the pilots monitoring skills and improving their ability to mentally simulate possible outcomes of either action or inaction in a particular situation. Pilots who had received the training performed significantly better in those situations that required judgment (whether to act or not) than those who did not receive the training. The trained group comparing to control group demonstrated 9% more teamwork skills when it was appropriate to do so during a simulated mission.
What if I were to tell you that I could give you a process or methodology that would allow those that don't know what they don't know to determine what they really needed? If I had a tool that supported a process of gathering required information, providing information to those that need it, when they need it, and in a form they understood, would people really be interested in such a tool? Well if ...
Thus, training positively influenced aviators knowledge and performance. I have selected this focus on COM because not only because it shows HR management in the Navy but also the use of knowledge aimed to improve teamwork competencies that allow the crew to cope with situational demands that would overwhelm any individual crew member. Flowing from this definition, we consider COM training to include instructional strategies designed to improve teamwork in the cockpit by applying well-tested training tools (e.g., performance measures, exercises, feedback mechanisms) and appropriate newly developed training methods (e.g., simulators, lectures, videos) targeted at specific content (i.e., knowledge, skills, and attitudes).
The problem of improving knowledge in the Navy provides a formidable challenge. Clearly, no single approach is likely to address the entire problem. Moreover, without a strong theoretical foundation – one that rests on an understanding of individual and team performance, human learning and skill acquisition, and pedagogy – it is not likely that effective training will be developed or fielded. This statement shows the importance of organizing function of management.
Bibliography: Glenn R. Griffin, Mathew M. Hodgins. VTT in the Navy: Training Now and for the Future, Journal article, T H E Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), Vol. 19, 1991. Lisa B.
Achille, Kay Gladwell Schulze, Astrid Schmidt-Nielsen. An Analysis of Communication and the Use of Military Terms in Navy Team Training, Military Psychology, Vol. 7, 1995. Roland J. Yardley, Harry J. Thie, John F.
The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach. 1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be ...
Schank, Jolene Galegher, Jessie L. Riposo. Use of Simulation for Training in the U.S. Navy Surface Force, Rand, 2003. William E. Peck, Timothy E. Purcell.
U.S. Navy Corrections: Confining Sailors Both at Sea and on Land, Corrections Today, Vol. 65, December 2003..