From the mighty stretches of the Karakorams in the North to the vast alluvial delta of the Indus River in the South, Pakistan remains a land of high adventure and nature. Trekking, mountaineering, white water rafting, wild boar hunting, mountain and desert jeep safaris, camel and yak safaris, trout fishing and bird watching, are a few activities, which entice the adventure and nature lovers to Pakistan.
Pakistan is endowed with a rich and varied flora and fauna. High Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindukush ranges with their alpine meadows and permanent snow line, coniferous forests down the sub-mountain scrub, the vast Indus plain merging into the great desert, the coast line and wetlands, all offer a remarkably rich variety of vegetation and associated wildlife including avifauna, both endemic and migratory. Ten of 18 mammalian orders are represented in Pakistan with species ranging from the world’s smallest surviving mammals, the Mediterranean Pigmy Shrew, to the largest mammal ever known; the blue whale.
Situated in the heart of the South Asian sub-continent, it is a country with its own fascinating history and cultural heritage. Pakistan was the site for one of the world’s earliest human settlements, the great prehistoric Indus Valley Civilization, the crucible of ancient empires, religions and cultures. Pakistan traces its history back to 2,500 years B.C. when a highly developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley. Excavations at Harappa, Moenjodaro, Kot Diji and Mehr Garh have brought to light, the evidence of an advanced civilization existing even in more ancient times.
... similar cereal crops which included wheat and barley. Indus Civilization had a large granary which dominated their architectural monuments ... trade, but Mesopotamia was much more reliant than Indus civilization. Both had agriculture which relied on silt for fertility ... importance. (Hawkes 1973:275). GOVERNMENT The state in Indus civilization was governed by a centralized government. (Hawkes 1973:263 ...
The landscape of Pakistan ranges from lofty mountains in the north, the Karakoram and the Himalayas, through dissected plateaus to the rich alluvial plains of the Punjab. Then follows desolate barrenness of Balochistan and the hot dry deserts of Sindh blending into miles and miles of golden beaches of Mekran coast.
Pakistan is situated between latitude 24 and 37 degrees North and longitude 62 and 75 degrees East. The country borders Iran on the West, India on the East, Afghanistan in the North-West, China in the North and the Arabian Sea in the South. The great mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Hindukush form Pakistan’s northern highlands of North West Frontier Province and the Northern Area; Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain with five major rivers dominating the upper region eventually joining the Indus River flowing south to the Arabian Sea; Sindh is bounded on the east by the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch and on the west by the Kirthar range; the Balochistan Plateau is an arid tableland, encircled by dry mountains. Its total area is 803,940 Sq.Km and total land area is 778,720 Sq.Km. (including FATA and FANA).
:: Unique Mountains, Valleys and Glaciers
Northern areas of Pakistan, spread over 72,496 sq.Km. are fascinating as its southern region. Amidst towering snow-clad peaks with heights varying from 1000 m to over 8000 meter, the valleys of Gilgit, Hunza and Skardu recall Shangri-La. The cultural patterns in this region are as interesting as its topography. The people with typical costumes, folk dances, music and sports like polo and buzkashi provide the traveler an unforgettable experience. Nowhere in the world there is such a great concentration of high mountains, peaks, glaciers and passes except Pakistan. Of the 14 over 8000 peaks on earth, 4 occupy an amphitheater at the head of Baltoro glacier in the Karakoram range. These are: K-2 (8611 m, world second highest), Broad Peak (8047m), Gasherbrum I (8068m) and Gasherbrum II (8035m).
... in shadows. All in all, Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak, by Albert Bierstadt, is a magnificent ... Albert Bierstadt in 1863, titled Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak, is an oil on canvas and ... slightly monochromatic, blue color of the sky and mountains also creates a clear separation from more upfront ... masterpiece. The diagonal lines of the sloping mountains very clearly separate the sky from the ...
There is yet another which is equally great, that is, Nanga Parbat (8126m) at the western most end of the Himalayas. In addition to that, there are 68 peaks over 7000 m and hundreds which are over 6000 m. The Northern Pakistan has some of the longest glaciers outside Polar region; Siachen (72 km), Hispar (61 km.), Biafo (60 km.), Baltoro (60 km.), Batura (64 km.), Yenguta (35 km.), Chiantar (34 km.), Trich (29 km.) and Atrak (28 km.).
The lower Himalayan valleys of Swat, Kaghan and Chitral in the Hindukush range equally share the beauty and diverse culture of the Northern Pakistan
Pakistan’s calendar features a great many Muslim religious festivals. Others are in memory of National Heroes or to commemorate political events in the nation’s recent history. Muslim festivals are celebrated according to Muslim (Lunar) Calendar and may occur some 10 days earlier each successive Christian Year. There are several folk festivals held regularly in every part of the country.