Peace and Conflict Resolution (Education) In the article of Victor Goode called: Crisis on the campus: Victor Goode explains what’s at stake in the conflict over affirmative action – Colorblind: Higher Education, he reflects the conflict of affirmative action in the life of the American society.Affirmative action appeared as a result of social controversies and inability of the state to provide sufficient solution of that inevitable dilemma. Era of discrimination brought significant sufferings to unprotected groups of society. Thus, the primary objective of affirmative action was to give minorities an equal opportunity at employment and in collegiate admissions. Affirmative action had positive effect on collegiate admissions and employment, however, remained more controversial in college admissions. Indeed, being considered as a disparate treatment for crucial social problem, affirmative action is characterized with critical disparate impact on contemporary society. The implementation of affirmative action was Americas first honest attempt at solving a problem, it had previously chosen to ignore.
In a variety of areas, from the quality of health care to the rate of employment, blacks, women, racial and ethnic minorities remained far behind white dominant males. Programs of affirmative action have had significant success in city, state, and government jobs. In his article Victor Goode mentions that affirmative action procedures were founded to combat racial discrimination. The federal government warranted affirmative action programs to remedy racial disparity and unfairness in a series of steps starting with an executive order issued by President Kennedy. Posterior executive orders, specifically Executive Order 11246 issued by President Johnson in September 1965,during his speech in Howard University, warranted affirmative action aims for all federally funded programs and shifted monitoring and compulsion of affirmative action programs out of the White House and into the Labour Department. Therefore, these procedures and the government act that followed were an answer to the colossal mobilization of African Americans and white adherents during the late 1950s and early 1960s pressing for integration and racial Justice.
... to send their children to college. Affirmative action programs also affected college admissions. In essence, once minorities had money ... the discrimination supported affirmative action (Fullinwider, Civil rights and racial preferences: A legal history of affirmative action 13). California, ... things for ourselves , says Renee Redwood, former executive director of Americans for a Fair Chance (White ...
However, by the 1970s, white people throughout the country were starting to feel that affirmative action added up to reverse discrimination. As an example of such contra discrimination Victor Goode brings out a few cases from the Michigan state. Reverse discrimination became a question, summarized by the famous Bakke case in 1978. Allen Bakke brought the case, University of California Regents versus Bakke. Bakke was by a white applicant who disputed that he had been passed over in favour of less qualified minority pretenders. Bakke put bounds on how far universities could go to hold places for minority students. According to the article, the Supreme Court outlawed unalterable quota scheme in affirmative action programs, which in this instance had trickily discriminated against a white pretender.
However, in the same ruling, the Court supported the lawfulness of affirmative action per se. As mentioned before, in the Michigan cases, the Supreme Court ruled that although affirmative action was no more corroborated as a way of reparation of past pressure and unfairness, it encouraged a “compelling state interest” in multiplicity at all levels of society. The largest number of friend-of-court briefs was filed in assistance of Michigans affirmative action case by hundreds of organizations portraying business, academia, and the military, labour unions, debating the advantages of ample racial representation. Through his article, Victor Good proves that discussions about affirmative action are not only about the legal issues but about much more. Taking action to bring racism to the end is the defiance and amenability of every single person in the American society, as well as of the institutions and organizations which have such an imposing influence on peoples life. There are numerous examples of situations where minorities who were previously excluded from jobs or educational chances, or were repudiated opportunities once admitted, have achieved access through affirmative action.
The issue of whether Affirmative Action will survive during the 21 st century has been widely debated. This program was designed in the 1970's to combat discrimination in the workforce and promote equality for all people regardless of race, color, creed, gender or national origin. The system that has evolved since the civil rights legislation of the 1960's is a misapplication of its original ...
These emoluments have guided to very real interchanges. Affirmative action programs have not eradicated racism, nor have they always been executed without problems. However, there would be no effort to roll back the earnings achieved if affirmative action policies were insufficient. Bibliography Goode V.Crisis on the campus: Victor Goode explains what’s at stake in the conflict over affirmative action – Colorblind: Higher Education available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0KAY/is_1_6 /ai_99907502/print.