Polydactyly or Polydactylism Polydactyly is usually defined as a congenital irregularity of the feet and hands. In other words, polydactyly occurs when the person has more than five toes per foot or more than five fingers per hand. Alternative names for polydactyly are extra digits or supernumerary digits. Although it is quite difficult to define the exact causes of the disease, having an excessive numbers of digits can happen on its own, and can have no links with other diseases or symptoms. Polydactyly can also take place in families as a dominantly inherited trait involving only one gene that results to several variations. What concerns frequency in the population and inheritance pattern for the disorder, according to the scientists, polydactyly, more than in any other ethnics group often occurs in African Americans; however, this occurrence does not necessarily points to any genetic disease. At the same time, this disorder can also occur because of some genetic defects or because of the errors in the process of fetal development.
According to the researchers, as far as developmental processes that participate in organogenesis, genetic inaccuracies often lead to human congenital abnormalities (The genetic basis of Limb and Gut Congenital Malformations).
It should be taken into account that although there are several forms of isolated polydactyly, and in the cases where the genetics is understood, the disorder is caused by an autosomal dominant gene. To put it differently, as far as the gene is autosomal (not sex-linked), both females and males are equally likely to inherit the trait. What about children, as far as the gene is dominant, children who have only one parent with the trait have a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder. People in the same family carrying the same gene can have different degrees of polydactyly (Polydactyly and syndactyly).
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The symptoms of the disorder are extra fingers or extra toes (Polydactyly).
According to the researchers, polydactyly is caused by a genetic disorder, with chromosome affected. These extra fingers or extra toes can be extremely rudimentary, and attached to the persons hand or foot by a small stalk.
Extra digits are usually located on the little finger side of the hand or foot. Sometimes extra digits can be quite well-formed and functional. No special medical treatment is required. Extra digits are generally removed by a number of ways depending on conditions. Sometimes the person may simply tie a tight string around the rudimentary digit in order to make it fall off in time. At the same time, larger and functional digits can require surgery in order to remove them.
Common causes for polydactyly are as follows: familial polydactyly (inherited trait), Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (chondroectodermal dysplasia), Carpenter syndrome, Trisomy 13, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome, and asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Polydactyly).
Genetic research is currently being done by numerous research teams and institutions. The researchers try to define associated genes, genetic pathways and protein interactions which are required to regulate the developmental processes causing polydactyly. The research is very important, as understanding genetic basis for cellular identity, namely, understanding the mechanism of the genetic disorder (what controls whether an endodermal cell becomes pancreatic or stomach, etc) will be very helpful in the researchers efforts to manipulate and redefine the types of cells they can use in cell based replacement therapies (The Genetic Basis of Limb and Gut Congenital Malformations).
... countries. The causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome have been puzzling and research is being conducted to solve this catastrophic ... growth preceding the occurrence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Sample: The authors researched all infants that died of SIDS between ... central theme of all four research articles was the possible causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Each report consistently showed ...
Works Cited Polydactyly. 8 March 2008 . Polydactyly and syndactyly.
8 March 2008 . The Genetic Basis of Limb and Gut Congenital Malformations. 8 March 2008 ..