PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is the quick and easy method of making unlimited copies of any fragment of DNA. Since it’s first introduction ten years ago, PCR has very quickly become an essential tool for “improving human health and human life (TPCR) .” Medical research and clinical medicine are profiting from PCR mainly in two areas: detection of infectious disease organisms, and detection of variations and mutations in genes, especially human genes. Because PCR can amplify unimaginably tiny amounts of DNA, even that from just one cell, “physicians and researchers can examine a single sperm or track down the elusive source of a puzzling infection” (TPCR) .” These PCR- based analyses are proving to be just as reliable as previous methods-sometimes more so and often much faster and cheaper. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used “to amplify the number of copies a specific region of DNA (Brown) “, in order to produce enough DNA to be adequately tested. This technique can be used to identify with a very high-probability, disease-causing viruses, bacteria, a deceased person, a criminal suspect, and also in the event of an outbreak, “Real-Time PCR can effectively monitor the success of clean-up efforts (RAL, Inc) .” In order to use PCR, one must already know the exact sequence of a gene or the sequence of interest that lie on both ends of the DNA. While similarity among genes of organisms exists, there will always be genes whose DNA sequences differ from each other.
Josh Hyman Per. 5 Plasmid Fusion & PCR The AMGEN Lab that we have been doing for the past two weeks consisted of two parts; Plasmid Fusion and PCR. Each one is a complicated procedure of genetic engineering, with our own cheek cells and E. Coli supplied by AMGEN. I will start by explaining the Plasmid Fusion lab. The Plasmid Fusion lab consisted of four major parts; plasmid digestion, gel ...
By identifying the genes that are different and unique, one can use this information to identify an organism. DNA is a double-stranded, “consisting of two such nucleotide chains that wind around each other in the famous shape known as the double helix (TPCR) .” DNA consist of Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine components which can be arrange to generate a “sentence” of a gene sequence which can consists of either a few or thousands of letters long. To get this copying process started, a template molecule of the DNA or RNA you want to copy is required along with two primer molecules that make up the strands of all genetic materials. These primer molecules consists of about 20 letters long, which can be linked together in the order desired by a DNA-synthesizer “which add and link one letter at a time (Brown) ” to generate the primers needed to start PCR.
There are three major steps in PCR that must be met in order for the process to be successful. During the first step, the desired DNA to be sequenced must be unwound and separated by heating it between “90 to 96 degrees Celsius (TPCR) .” By heating the DNA sample the paired strands separate “becoming individual single strands allowing access for the primers (Brown) .” The second step of PCR is annealing, where “large excess of primers relative to the amount of DNA being amplified (Brown) ” is added to the sample. During this second stage, the primers and samples are exposed to 54 degrees Celsius and are “joggling around, constantly forming ionic bonds between the standard primer and the single stranded template (POP) .” Afterwards, the sample mixture is then cooled down, allowing for the double strands to form again. The third step in PCR is the attachment of an enzyme “DNA-synthesis known as a polymerase (TPCR) ” to the opposite ends of the DNA strands. These enzymes are present in all living things, and their job is to copy the genetic material and also “proofread and correct the copies (TPCR) .” The polymerase Taq comes from a “bacterium that can happily survive and reproduce in environment that is lethal to other organisms (TPCR) .” That is why the organism’s polymerase is perfectly at home in the rapidly fluctuating temperatures of an automated PCR. After the completion of all three steps, the results are two new helices in place of the first, “each composed of one of the original strand plus its newly assembled complementary strand (TPCR) .” To get more of the DNA you want, just repeat the process, beginning by denaturing the DNA you ” ve already made.
1. (a) I. Plasmids are important tools in molecular biology. Plasmids are small circular DNA that has the ability to enter and replicate in bacterial cells and can be used as vectors to introduce foreign genes into bacteria for cloning and sequencing. Any gene must be inserted into an appropriate location of a plasmid to be expressed. The importance of a plasmid is in the step of cloning and ...
Each cycle takes only one to three minutes, so repeating the process for just forty-five minutes can generate millions of copies of specific DNA strands; a job that would have normally taken a year to do if advancement in PCR was not established. Unlike previous tests, PCR can now not only detect people with inherited disorders, but also people that carry deleterious mutated genes, that could be passed onto their children. PCR can provide these people a peace of mind, by reassuring them of the possibility of transferring genetic disorders and educating them about it. PCR is doing for genetic material what the invention of the printing press did for written material, making copying easy, inexpensive, and accessible.
In principle, PCR can reproduce the genetic material of any organism in essentially unlimited quantities, whether they are germs, plants, or human beings. Thanks to PCR, we will be able to probe the genetic past and peer into the past of genetics and peer into it’s future with hopes of knowing whatever it is in our DNA. References Brown, John C. “What The Heck is PCR?” 1995. pp.
1 – 2. web Mull is, Karl. “The Unusual Origin of the Polymerase Chain Reaction.” Scientific America. April.
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“Principle of the PCR.” 1999. pp. 1 – 4. web Research Associates Laboratory. “Real-Time vs PCR.” R. A.
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The New Future Technology has been growing at a tremendous rate. From the telephone, to the car, to the airplane, to the computer, and finally the internet. This is just a very brief history of technology, but it shows how much it has benefited us. The sole purpose of technology is to improve the lives of society. The next addition to the technology time-line will be genetic engineering. Although ...