A reciprocal economic system is a form of exchange of goods and services that occurs between members of a kinship group. The basic underlying principle is reciprocity, a mutual, agreed-upon exchange of goods and services. Reciprocity works well in a society in which food items need to be consumed quickly due to spoilage. (Mosser, 2011) There are three forms of reciprocity, generalized, balanced, and negative. Foraging communities do not want to be tied down by surplus of resources. Their environment allows them to access whatever they want when they want it. If they had to store extra resources, this would inhibit them from their mobile lives. This is what is called an immediate return system. Generalized reciprocity is a form of exchange with no expectation of exchange in value usually based on socially recognized family and kin relationships. This idea resembles the karma factor. If you do well for others, good things will come back to you. Since everything is shared, there is no reason for accumulation of wealth. This abolishes jealously and envy which discourage cooperation within a society. Negative reciprocity is an exchange usually between strangers. The basis for this form of exchange is for each side to maximize the value of their returns.
It also gives a society a chance to get resources the normally they can’t produce themselves. One reason that major conflict is rare is that bands are small. Kinship is the central organizing principle. (Mosser, 2011)People with in the society can either recon ciliate their differences or move away. Balanced reciprocity is a direct exchange with the promise of the return of an item of equivalent value to the giver within an agreed–upon period of time. If the giver receives an item of lesser value, the giver might decide to terminate the relationship. (Mosser, 2011) Among horticultural people, both the generalized and the balanced forms of reciprocity are important. The circle of people with whom generalized reciprocal exchanges occur is smaller than among foragers, but kinship and proximity still play important roles (Mosser, 2011) Many horticultural societies use a mixed substance economy. This means that they subsidize their planted food with hunting and gathering of other resources. Reciprocity is entirely absent in my life. My family dynamics are broken and obsolete; I have become self-sufficient and self-reliable. Now this is not to say that my way of life has not been a great struggle. A matter of fact I find myself envious of these cultures. I find hard to admit but I am almost jealous of the benefits that they offer the individual and their kin.
Human Resource Management Legal Issues in Human Resource Introduction Undoubtedly, contemporary Human Resource Management is closely interrelated with legal issues, which can arise on every area concerned to this spacious field. Consequently, it is extremely important to be aware of key problems in different areas of Human Resource and possible ways of resolving them This paper examines and ...