If the blood vessels in the kidneys are damaged, they may stop removing wastes and extra fluid from the body. The extra fluid in the blood vessels may then raise blood pressure even more. It’s a dangerous cycle. 12. Briefly explain what will happen to the glomerular capillary pressure and glomerular filtration rate if both the afferent and efferent arteriole radius is decreased? Explain!!! (3 points) ? The simultaneously implementation of both arteriole rates changing caused glomerular filtration rate and low blood pressure conditions went above the baseline value. 13.
How could an increased urine volume be viewed as beneficial to the body? (2 points) ? It removes toxins from the body. 14. Diuretics are often prescribed to patients with chronic high blood pressure. Why? (2 points) ? For high blood pressure, diuretics, commonly known as “water pills,” help your body get rid of unneeded water and salt through the urine. Getting rid of excess salt and fluid helps lower blood pressure and can make it easier for your heart to pump. 15. What will happen to the urine volume and concentration as the solute gradient (concentration) in the interstitial space is increased?
Explain!!! (3 points) ? It increases because ADH causes water to move out of urine and the more solute there is the more concentrated the urine. 16. Speculate on ways that desert rats are able to concentrate their urine significantly more than humans? (Think: Hormones) (2 points) ? They probably produce more ADH to get all the water possible from the urine as there is not a lot of water in the desert. 17. What would be a reasonable mechanism for diuretics? (2 points) ? They act by diminishing sodium reabsorption at different sites in the nephron, thereby increasing urinary sodium and water loss. 8. What will happen to the glucose concentration in the urinary bladder as glucose carriers are added to the proximal tubule? Explain!!! (2 points) ? Glucose concentration in the urine decreased because the carriers were able to get the glucose across. 19. Predict what will happen to the urine volume (compared to normal) when aldosterone is added to the distal tubule. Explain!!! (2 points)
... point. Blood pressure when the heart beats is called systolic pressure. Blood pressure when the heart is at rest is called diastolic pressure. When blood pressure ... -angiotensin system plays a central role in blood pressure regulation. Explain the renin-angiotensin system with reference to ... and water into the blood. This increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure. ...
Predict what will happen to the urine volume (compare to normal) when ADH is added to the collecting duct. Explain!!! (2 points) urine concentration increases, and urine volume decreases because it causes the body to absorb water from the urine. Predict what will happen to the urine volume and the urine concentration (compared to normal) in the presence of both aldosterone and ADH. Explain!!! (2 points) They both have similar effects, they are agonist so adding both will decrease urine volume, and increase urine concentration.
ADH increases water permeability and aldosteron reabsorbs sodium ions and water but loses potassium ions. Why does alcohol consumption lead to a dramatic increase in urine production? (2 points) Because the proximal tubule reabsorbs more water which accounts for increase urine production. Why do angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors given to people with hypertension lead to increased urine production. (Hint: think what ACE is doing and its effects on arterioles) (4 points) ACE inhibitors dilate blood vessels and increase the amount of water your kidneys get rid of, lowering blood pressure. 4
... persons gender, and body weight can influence the need for increased water intake. People who fail to take these into consideration stand ... bodys hydration. Dark, gold-colored urine is a sure sign that the body is low on ... to know what to look for. Watching the color of urine may be the best, and easiest way to eyeball the ...